Thursday, December 26, 2019
Between Homeland and Motherland Africa The book illustrates the dynamic ideas that shape black politicians, intellectuals, and social movement activistsÃ¢â¬â¢ behavior as they participate in U.S foreign issues towards Africa. The author is an African descendant interested in knowledge on racism. This is because of the rich and reassuring conversations he had on race relations from his immediate family and the shadow of civil rights associations. At the same time, his parents had exposed him to the realities of Africa through art, museums, and books hence able to counter psychological assault by the whites. Black Americans are deeply ambivalent on their status as Americans and rootedness in their motherland. Africans living in America have debates on the names they should use and the obligations they owe to the motherland and race. He highlights the significance of factors in Africa American societies and domestic politics contrary to view that pan-Africanism is the dominant idea that guides black leaders in planning foreign policies toward Africa At the same time, AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s interests were vital to Americas black elites and his analysis reveals that there is strong attachment of several black leaders to their Ã¢â¬Å"motherlandÃ¢â¬ . Straddling two centuries of African American engagement with Africa, the book reveals the way black leaders incessantly balanced transnational, national and community impulses. 1It was a mixture of ideas whether to distance from Marcus Garveys movement, oppose apartheid in South African or support the anti-colonialism movements. Written in a historical view and theoretical sensibility, it accounts for the complex and uneven relationships linked black policy and political elites in the United States concerning foreign affairs in Africa. It has a strategic prism to illuminate domestic considerations on constituent decisions and leadership organizations by leaders about Liberia, Cold War, South Africa and decolonization to the present day. Transnationalism is a dominant theory, but it does describe the American black elite habits especially when in the foreign land. It makes a salient involvement to understanding the role played by blacks historically in persuading U.S. foreign policy toward Africa. He used an innovative multi method approach that merges archival statistical modeling, research, and interviews to get comprehensive information of what Africans living in America have passed through. They have managed to accommodate themselves in the contemporary world and survive the hardships yet they can achieve and hold great positions in any society. Group Consciousness Hypothesis Group consciousness is a key concept in understanding the way racial minority groups in U. S have overcome prejudice, exclusion and disadvantage to achieve equality in the democratic process. The feelings of solidarity and identification that accompany it appear to stimulate the collective achievement that helped the blacks participate fully in America. It holds an important position in several accounts of how blacks and other disadvantaged minorities achieved political incorporation in America. TilleryÃ¢â¬â¢s book clearly highlights the impact of this hypothesis especially on political behavior. The Whites proved significantly to be politically more active in than blacks were. This is because the whites have a greater socioeconomic share of resources such as income and education that facilitate political engagement. It was remarkable that blacks appeared to take part at advanced rates than whites after controlling their socioeconomic status differences. Ethnicity and nationalism secessionist movements and interethnic conflicts have shaped the modern world and the organization and stability of current states. The book presents characteristic theory concerning modern nationalism and origins of ethnic identity. The racial nationalism hypothesis The racial nationalism theory lies on two main arguments: one that nationalism and ethnicity are political and social constructions. The second, that nationalism and ethnicity are current inseparable phenomena connected with the actions of the modern state. The theory of elite shows how nationalism and ethnicity arise out of definite interactions between elites from minority ethnic groups and the leadership of consolidated states. The book tests and discusses the theory through a range of patterns of ethnic mobilization and case studies. It focuses on the persistence, formation, and transformation of ethnic distinctiveness and on the struggles in relations between the state and central and governments in India after NehruÃ¢â¬â¢s death. It also contains an impression of center-state relations. Radicalization politics hypothesis Radicalization politics hypothesis reflects itself when Africans starts adopting increasingly extreme social, political, religious aspirations and ideals that undermine or reject their status quo. Radicalism originates from acceptance of progressive changes in society. When radicalization occurs across reinforcing pathways, it increases a groupÃ¢â¬â¢s lethality resilience greatly. 1It serves as a sociological trap, which gives individuals no other option to satisfy their spiritual and material needs. Therefore, it has the capacity to blend in with non-fundamental society and participate in a contemporary, globalized economy Model minority hypothesis Model minority is evident in racism in America where Africa Americans are most often supposed to achieve an elevated degree of success than the average population. Characteristically, it measures success in education, income, and correlated factors such as high family stability and low crime rate. Statistics generally back up the model minority as highly represented in white-collar jobs and educational achievers as well. The model minority hypothesis often relies on success indicators. The research questions applied in the book From the extensive use of the research analysis method in data collection for the book, the author had to handle a number of imperative questions in the study. However, each of the research questions signified the point driven by the author about the African people and their lives in both motherland settings in Africa and the homeland settings in America. First, the author is driven by the question, how can Africa have enough protection from the human trade and challenges the people faced? 1Through this question, the author aimed at a lasting solution to the slavery cases that took the toll throughout Africa aided by the United States of America and the World Trade Organization (WTO). Through his speech, Representative Jesse Jackson Jr. urged the government to support his bill that aimed at ensuring that the United States of America advocated for the existence and independence of the Africans and not their extinction and slavery. According to Tillery, the Human Rights, Opportunity, P artnership, and Empowerment (HOPE) for Africa Act aimed at the freedom of the African people from the illegal trade that bound the people to the Americans and the rest of the world. The second research question addressed by the author is, were the American people ready to support their bid to free Africa from the slave trade that made the Americans economically stable? The confusion in the Liberia case of freedom and offering under Abraham Lincoln in 1862 prompted the author to doubt the readiness of the government to support the African plea. Many Africans yearned for the freedom but the question of readiness to support from the American people lingered. The diplomatic team to the African country in 1863 aimed to shore up the strained diplomatic relationship with the highly insecure African country and encourage emigration. The mission failed due to lack of commitment from the envoy members. However, the clarity of the matter remained hidden to the people and the author doubted whether anyone was willing to go and help the continent. Many people however felt that the envoy did not have the willpower to negotiate the deal, especially the first mission to streaml ine the relationship with the African people. The third research question that guided the author in the formulation of the book is, was the failure to protect the continent was a failure by the African leaders to associate with the right people or was it due to their desire to protect their fertile lands? The author felt that the people in the African continent had a reason to stay isolated and they craved to protect something on their land. However, the willingness of the American people and the rebellion from some of the African people surprised the author. 2The letter by Marcus Mosiah Garvey inviting the African elite people to a meeting to discuss the pan Africanism movement in 1920 indicated clearly that the African elite aimed at protecting something valuable in the land. Marcus invited Du Bois to the meeting because he felt that Du Bois was a major boost in the pan African movement as he was an influential activist who would push the African activities. The question of whether the Africans had some treasures to protect majorly drove the decisions of the people. However, the author was also driven by the question, was Africa united as a bloc, and was it ripe for people to seek independence? The addresses by Ralph and Sanford in the House of Representatives led the author to seek into the readiness of the American people to help the continent. 3The constant divergence from the mainstream ideas like the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) and the public opposition of Bunche even after he won the Nobel peace prize proved to the author that the continent needed to get freedom from the slavery that most of the European nations aimed at. Most of the people in the house of representatives against the growth of African intelligence and economic status opposed any motion and bills that the people introduced in the house of representatives to support the Africans. However, the people did not present issues to intimidate the African elite . The main activities involved opposition of any movements that aimed at enlightening Africans. The author addressed a number of main issues through the story to support the main hypothesis in the book. The author mainly addresses the hypothesis in the book through addressing the interactions between the African people and the African American people on different fronts. First, the interaction between the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) and the African leaders proved that some of the American people were not ready to aid the efforts of the Africans to unite the continent and protect the African people whether on African soil or in America. At the same time, through the letters shared between the organization and the African leaders, the leaders of the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) showed their readiness to unite with the Africans in the pan African movement. Notably, the movement aimed at easing the foreign pressure on the African elite by protecting their activities in the continent with nationalists like Marcus Mosiah Garvey and W. E. B. Du Boi s involved in the movement. The interaction of the African people with the cold war also addressed the hypothesis created by the author in the book. Tillery notes that the Africans needed to protect the treasures on the African land. Most of the African elite believed that the cold war on African front aimed at jeopardizing the efforts they put in to secure total freedom for the people in Africa. The Egyptian and Liberian cases of failed diplomacy in the region proved that the people aimed to secure their cultural security and identity even in the face of increased opposition from the American and European forces. 4The 1946 gathering of over 15,000 people from different races at the Madison Square proved to the government that the pan African movement had a strong backing despite the extent of the cold war. The gathering also proved to the government that the interference with the African people and their lifestyles was not a factor that interested people from any racial background. In the development of the hypothesis and the theme development, the author mainly focused on the political satire and the opposition by the Americans who opposed the pan African movement. Ralph Johnson tried to play the role of a mediator between some of the opposition to the African movements and the African elite. However, despite the fact that he became the first person from the African continent to win the Nobel peace prize, the American people against pan Africanist movement opposed his pleas. Some of the members in the American House of Representatives opposed the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA). This made it extremely hard for the people in America who aimed to promote the pan African movement. The public opposition of the pan African movement in the House of Representatives mainly discouraged the pan African movement enforcers especially in the United States of America. The participation of the Africans in the pan African movement and the desire of the people in Africa to support the movement mainly enhanced the activities of the pan Africanists. The support of the African elite in the movements surprised most of the people who took part in the movement. 6First, the gathering at the Madison Square boosted the spirits of the pan African elite and specialists. The organization of the gathering aimed at ensuring that the elite in America showed their solidarity and support for the independence of the African people. Second, the embrace of Ethiopia by the African elite in defiance to the calls of the world to abandon it also affected the emphasis of the author on the development of the thesis. At the same time, the author looked at the unwillingness of the American leaders especially the leaders in the House of Representatives to respect the calls of the African elite in the freedom of the African people. As much as the content development and the thematic nature of the writing and the sensitivity of the matter affected the writing of the author, the writing styles also affected the works. The multi approach nature of data employed facilitated the delivery of the content. First, the author mainly used data obtained from research works. Through research, the author revealed many factors and activities that showed the fight of the African elite to protect their homeland despite the fact that they lived in a good environment in the United States of America. The birth of back-to-Africa movement led by Paul Cuffe mainly uncovers through the research data by the author. The author insists that research materials linked the movement with the start of elite movements to protect the African people on the African continent despite the fact that they lived luxurious lives in the United States of America. Through research, the author also uncovered the policy by the United States of America towar ds the political situation in Africa. First, research materials showed that the continent did not stand as one of the main areas of focus by the American government. The government prioritized victory in battles over the security, safety, and political coolness in the continent. Data sources and presentation The author also presented the data through statistical analysis. The use of numbers in the analysis of the response of the people to pan African movement also proved as imperative in the presentation of the information. First, the author specifically noted the number of people who got involved in the gathering at the Madison square. 1The use of numbers in the nations and pan Africanists who supported the African urge to free Africa from the colonial slave trade and the protection of their land from the American and European invasion. The authors also utilized the interviews in the collection of data that he used in preparation of the book. First, the author interviewed some people who took part in the pan African movement. Some of the leaders in the movement also presented their information through interviews. Most of the people who took part in the interviews especially the elite stated that the main reason for the movement was the public condemnation of the activities of African pan Africanists by the leaders in the House of Representatives. Most of the planners of the pan African movement and the Congressional Black Caucuss struggle aimed at ensuring the economic growth in the continent. Alvin TilleryÃ¢â¬â¢s Between Homeland and Motherland Africa, US foreign Policy and Black Leadership in America present a situation of the battle of the American African elite to liberate the Africans from the slave trade and the invasion by the Americans and the Europeans in the leadership and economic situation of the continent. The main thesis in the book is the struggle of the African elite to protect the Africa land and ensure economic prosperity in the country. The main questions that guided the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s research and the consecutive writing of the book mainly revolved around the readiness of the American elite in protecting the African rights and privileges in the leadership and economic situation in the continent. At the same time, the author identified main ideas that affected the Africans who gathered people to show the wide support to the pan Africanist activities. Besides the activities, the role of prominent people in the pan African movement played a major part i n the development of the movement. References Tillery, Alvin B. 2011. Between homeland and motherland: Africa, U.S. foreign policy, and Black leadership in America / Alvin B. Tillery, Jr. n.p.: Ithaca [N.Y.] : Cornell University Press, 2011., 2011.
Tuesday, December 17, 2019
Through looking at Karl MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s application of religion as well as Emile DurkheimÃ¢â¬â¢s concepts of religion, it is shown that religion is an ideology that is seen throughout modern society. Although there are many different views surrounding religion, my main objective in this essay is to assess MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s claim that Religion is an ideology by focusing primarily on Marx and DurkheimÃ¢â¬â¢s views on religion. In order to establish religion as an ideology, we must start by looking at what makes something an ideology. I will then be analysing MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s view on religion as an opium of the masses, using other anthropological approaches to religion, such as DurkheimÃ¢â¬â¢s, to get a better understanding of the ideas surrounding religion and then applying these ideas to real life examples in two societies that show these different theories of religion. Ã¢â¬Å"Religion may be said to include forms of social belief in supernatural powers which are public and are given public expression through ritual.Ã¢â¬ (Eriksen, 1995) Religion itself is a set of different organised beliefs about the role of humans in the relationship between the different aspects of reality including the natural and supernatural. J.G. Frazer describes religion as a conciliation of powers superior to man, which are believed to direct and control the course of nature and human life (1990). Similarly, an ideology refers to a system of beliefs that work collectively to support a social system. Just like ideologies provide guides for individuals,Show MoreRelatedA Critical outline of the main features of Functionalism, Symbolic Interactionism And Marxism1376 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSociology, the study of society; has been adapted by many sociologists so as to put across their own theories. The most important Sociologists of the early 19th century were Emile Durkeim, K arl Marx and Max Weber; a common factor with all these men is that they were all influenced by the world in which they lived. I intend to, throughout this essay, explain these three different theories, evaluate them and also critically outline their main features. The Functionalist sees society as built up andRead MoreSocial Institutions And Its Impact On Society1602 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessocial institutions which have considerable impacts on the lives of the members of society, such as religion and education. These institution act as the means of providing opportunity for the overall development of individuals. In this regard it can be said that Ã¢â¬Å"The role of religion is to remind republican citizens of their duties to and reliance upon God. Virtue is the bedrock of free society, and religion provides a constant reminder of that factÃ¢â¬ (Palmer, 2008). Academic institutions, on the otherRead MoreMarx And Durkeim on Religion Essay1846 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesdo we account for religion - its origin, its development, and even its persistence in modern society? This is a question which has occupied many people in a variety of fields for quite a long time. At one point, the answers were framed in purely theological and religious terms, ass uming the truth of Christian revelations and proceeding from there. In the 18th and 19th centuries, a more naturalistic approach developed. Instead of needing to believe in the truth of the religion, what was requiredRead MoreScociological1136 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesnot, then the aspect will not pass onto the next generation. There were two people who were mainly involved in the development of the functionalist perspective. The French sociologist David Emile Durkeim and Talcott Parsons. Durkheim contributed to the functionalist perspective when he studied religion, and how it was responsible for people feeling solidarity and unity in groups. Parsons was a sociologist from Harvard University who was greatly influenced by Durkheim. In return, he influencesRead MoreDiscuss the Structural (Ist) Functionalist Perspective in Sociology. (Your Answer Should Focus on the Strengths and Weaknesses of Functionalist and Marxist Perspectives)1206 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagessociety work together t owards a common goal derived from value consensus to maintain social stability, social order and equilibrium. Functionalism began with Auguste Comte (1798-1857) and Herbert Spencer (1820-1903). It was further developed by Emile Durkeim and other modern sociologists such as Talcott Parsons and by R. K. Merton. Functionalists focus on factors such as functions, social order and value consensus which are achieved by the various social institutions in society. They all assist in
Monday, December 9, 2019
Rock vs Classical Music Essay Having a distinct structure and showing development from beginning to end helps make a song timeless. Also the depth and complexity of writing for tens or even hundreds of instruments will make classical music appreciated by people for endless expanse time. The harmonies in classical orchestral music are impossible to reproduce with a small band of rock instruments. Modern rock has harmonies Just as all music does but the harmony between the lead guitar, bass guitar and the keyboard is no where near what can be produced with an entire orchestra. Listen to Beethovens famous Fifth to hear the distortion that a solid of violins produces and what that can do for the sound. Then listen to something like Green Day or Koran. There is still distortion with the string instruments but with only two or three guitars in a modern rock band the depth of the sound is lost. Classical music is typically very structured and organized. Mozart wrote all of his music with a very distinct introduction, body, and conclusion. Listen to the introduction of his Requiem Mass and the distinct conclusion of Nine Klein Machinists. Mozart music generally obeys the strictest rules of the time signature and the key. Then listen to the differences and general lack of structure in anything Bob Dylan wrote. Punk rock and hardcore death metal is even farther from strictly obeying the time signature. Pick up Pink Floods The Wall, Tools Laterals, and Nine Inch Nails The Fragile and to how the beginning and ending of each song is ambiguous. They flow together so that the point at which one song ends and the next begins is only known by the CD players time and track display. Modern rock is generally written for about four or five instruments and a lead voice that is consistent in every song. With an entire orchestra of instruments each section or even each instrument can operate equally with all of the others. Solos and collies add even more to the depth and complexity. Rock music does have its solos but not as often and usually its only for a short time in a song. Right after the solo the instruments return to their normal rank of lead guitar, keyboard, bass, then drums. Rock Vs.. Classical Music. Pros and cons of each type of music, as well as a comparison of styles. By Meyer o Rosins William Tell Future and how every instrument plays as the lead instrument at different points. Classical orchestral music and modern rock music have fundamental differences that obviously separate the styles but because modern rock lacks the beautiful harmonics, structure, and complexity it cannot be as timeless as Mozart can. Both types of music hold a certain value and although classical music sales are a small percentage compared to rock music, Beethoven will be listened to Just as much in 400 years as it is today. The same cannot be said for even the Beetles, Pink Floyd, or Metallic.
Monday, December 2, 2019
Centripetal systems are of import to us ; they let us comprehend the environment. The senses can be loosely divided in to the sense of touch. odor. gustatory sensation. vision and hearing. The apparently simple perceptual experience is in fact non every bit simple as it sounds there is a batch of chemical science and natural philosophies that takes topographic point. When we touch a hot surface. odor that delightful nutrient. see beautiful colourss. or hearing that beautiful music. our nervous system is working at an unbelievable rate. to do sense of these signals and allow us bask them or run off from them. Sense of Taste: Sense of gustatory sensation is related to the sense of odor but there are merely five sorts of gustatory sensations that we can observe. They are sweet. rancid. bitter. salty and umami. Detection of gustatory sensation is done via particular epithelial cells in the gustatory sensation buds of the lingua. We will write a custom essay sample on Sensory System Essay Sample or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In instance of salty gustatory sensation the Na ions leads to gap of ion channels and the signal is sent as an electrical urge to the encephalon. In instance of Sweet. bitter an umami 7TM receptors are involved. when a Ã¢â¬Å"tastent Ã¢â¬Å" binds to these receptors they produce camps. which in bend unfastened channel proteins which allow ions to go through through and the nerve cell direct the urge to the encephalon which detects it. Sight: Sense of sight or vision is the ability to see. this is done through the photoreceptor cells. which are either Rods or cones. Rod cells contain a pigment visual purple. which in bend consists of opsin protein and retinal. When retinal is exposed to illume it changes its conformation. This so lead to activation of a G Protein called Transducin. Transducin so breaks cGMP to GMP. which leads to shutting of ion channels. directing an electrical signal to the encephalon. Cone cells on the other manus contain pigment specific receptors ; there are receptors of ruddy. green. and bluish visible radiation. Hearing: In our interior ear. we have a fluid filled pouch. which is coiled like a snail. This poke is called the cochlea. The cochlea has little hair cells. These hair cells have many stereocillia of different lengths. When the sound waves hit these stereocillia. it changes the membrane potency of the hair cell due to the mechanical emphasis. The whole procedure is mechanical and the motion of stereocillia. which creates the membrane potency. is transported to the encephalon via nervousnesss and is perceived as sound. Touch: This includes feeling many different factors like force per unit area temperature and hurting. Sense of touch is non really good understood. It is thought that the sense of touch is processed by hurting processing centres in the encephalon and the spinal cord. The receptors. which sense this. are called nocireceptors. A survey of spicy nutrient and how it is perceived provided penetration into the apprehension of the sense of touch. It was determined that capsaicin receptors when activated open up cation channels taking to membrane possible and a nervus urge in generated. Mentions Jermey M Berg. John LTymokzo. Lupert Stryer. ( 2012 ) . Centripetal systems Biochemistry ( 7th ed. ) . New York: W. H. Freeman and Company.
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
3 Tips for Writing a Successful Letter of Continued Interest SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips If youÃ¢â¬â¢ve found yourself waitlisted or deferred from your dream school, you might be worried and frustrated. What does being on the waitlist mean? Do you still have a chance of getting in? What can you do to improve your chances? While thereÃ¢â¬â¢s not one singular way of ensuring your eventual admission to your dream school, a letter of continued interest can show your continued dedication to the admissions committee. In this article, weÃ¢â¬â¢ll talk about what a continued interest letter is and give a letter of continued interest sample so you know how to write your own if you need to. What Is a Letter of Continued Interest? If youÃ¢â¬â¢ve been waitlisted or deferred from a college, you may feel sad or confused. But a waitlist or deferment isnÃ¢â¬â¢t always a bad thing - it means that the college thinks that you could be a strong candidate. However, they have some reservations about your application, or else they would have accepted you already. A letter of continued interest lets the admissions committee know that youÃ¢â¬â¢re still excited about the prospect of attending that school. More than that, a continued interest letter is a way to update the admissions committee on your achievements, which may in turn push them over the edge and decide to admit you. What Should You Include in a Letter of Continued Interest? Colleges want to make sure that they have the best and brightest freshmen class possible. Your continued interest letter should prove that you belong among the admitted applicants. You should include: An indication that you still want to attend the school. Updates on your recent accomplishments (academic, extracurricular, and personal). Basically, you want to show the admissions committee that youÃ¢â¬â¢re still working hard and still interested in attending their school. As with any college essay, you should make the letter personal and specific - treat your continued interest letter as a chance to give the admissions committee greater insight into who you are as a person. The types of updates you include will be specific to school youÃ¢â¬â¢re applying to. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re applying somewhere that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t accept SAT scores, for instance, it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t make sense to include your SAT scores. Do your research on what your school looks at and make sure to only include updates that are relevant to what you require. What Should You Not Include in a Letter of Continued Interest? ItÃ¢â¬â¢s normal to be disappointed if youÃ¢â¬â¢re deferred or waitlisted - but donÃ¢â¬â¢t show that in your letter of continued interest. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t express any frustration or negative feelings. Your letter should be positive and focused on your accomplishments, not your anger that the admissions committee hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t realized your merits. You want to highlight positive personality traits, like perseverance, not ones like jealousy or anger. Letter of Continued Interest Samples Your letter of continued interest will be different if youÃ¢â¬â¢re deferred or if youÃ¢â¬â¢re waitlisted. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re deferred from an early decision pool to the regular candidate pool, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll want to indicate that the college is still your first choice, even though you may not have heard from anyone else yet. If youÃ¢â¬â¢ve been waitlisted, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll likely have heard from other colleges, so you can be more specific about why the waitlisted school is your top choice. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s take a look at a letter of continued interest sample for each scenario. Letter of Continued Interest Sample - Waitlist Dear Mr. Admissions, I was recently waitlisted for the 2018 school year. I am writing to express my continued interest in ABC University. I am particularly drawn to the school's Music Education program - the amazing faculty, including Professor 123, and state of the art facilities are what specifically make ABC University my top choice. I also wanted to update you on some exciting news. Since I first submitted my application, I have been awarded the Rockstar Prize for Excellence in Music. This award is given to a high school senior in my state every year. I think winning the award shows my dedication and continued passion in music. I've included an updated resume reflecting this honor. Thank you so much for your time and consideration. If you have any further questions, please let me know. I look forward to hearing from you. Sincerely, Student #1 This letter of continued interest sample is perfect for a student on the waitlist. First, it details the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s continued interest in the university. Next, it tells the admissions committee about a new honor, showing that the student is still working hard, even late into his or her senior year. It also provides an updated resume of accomplishments for the committee to review. Letter of Continued Interest Sample - Deferred Dear Ms. Admissions, Thank you for taking the time to read my application. I know that DEF University is incredibly competitive and IÃ¢â¬â¢m glad that I am still being considered a candidate for admission. I'm writing to express my continued interest in attending, and to include some new information to add to my application. Since I applied to DEF University, I have retaken the SAT to improve my score. My math score is now 770 and my reading score is 740. IÃ¢â¬â¢m proud of myself for this achievement and am sending an official score report to the school. I understand that this new information may not impact my admissions, as the candidate pool is so talented, but I wanted to share it with you anyways. I'm still very excited about the prospect of getting my acceptance letter to DEF University and joining the history department this fall. Thank you for your time and consideration. Sincerely, Student #2 This letter of continued interest sample gives concrete updates on the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s SAT scores. Since the student has been deferred, sending along an updated score report is a wise choice. The same goes for transcripts - if your work continues to be stellar or even improve, you should send updates along to the school as youÃ¢â¬â¢re considered as a candidate for regular admission. 3 Tips for Writing Your Letter of Continued Interest If you need to write a letter of continued interest, keep these tips in mind. #1: Keep It Short and Sweet The admissions committee doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to read a ten-page essay on your accomplishments. Keep your letter brief, cheery, and polite. You donÃ¢â¬â¢t need to write more than 300 words to get your point across - youÃ¢â¬â¢re still interested in the school and youÃ¢â¬â¢ve been working hard. #2: Include Supplementary Materials (If The School Looks at Them) If youÃ¢â¬â¢ve had any exciting updates to your application, be sure to highlight them in the letter. If your standardized test scores have improved, send along the official reports. If your grades are up, order new transcripts. Only include these materials if they are relevant to the school youÃ¢â¬â¢re applying to. #3: Be Specific Since your letter shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be that long, focus on specific achievements, like an improved grade. Give the exact details of what youÃ¢â¬â¢ve done and how youÃ¢â¬â¢ve improved - donÃ¢â¬â¢t say that your grades are better, say that you transformed your B in Calculus to an A. Make it easy for the admissions committee to see what youÃ¢â¬â¢ve done. In Summary A letter of continued interest is a good way to show the admissions committee that you still want to attend their school. It probably wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be the one factor to sway your application one way or the other, but it canÃ¢â¬â¢t hurt! If youÃ¢â¬â¢re deferred or waitlisted at your dream school, take the time to write and send a letter of continued interest. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Next? Grades are an important part of a successful college application.This guide to getting a 4.0 GPA will help you plan effective studying habits, giving you a better chance at getting into your dream college. Our guide to college applications will help you understand exactly what schools are looking for. Are you worried about standardized tests and their role in your college application? Read this article to find out when these tests might not matter for you.Also take a look at this list of colleges that don't require SAT scores. Want to build the best possible college application? We can help. PrepScholar Admissions is the world's best admissions consulting service. We combine world-class admissions counselors with our data-driven, proprietary admissions strategies. We've overseen thousands of students get into their top choice schools, from state colleges to the Ivy League. We know what kinds of students colleges want to admit. We want to get you admitted to your dream schools. Learn more about PrepScholar Admissions to maximize your chance of getting in.
Saturday, November 23, 2019
A New List of Anti-Suffragist Reasons Alice Duer Miller, a writer and poet, wrote a column in the early 20th century for theÃ New York TribuneÃ called Are Women People? In this column, she satirized the ideas of the anti-suffrage movement, as a way of promoting womens suffrage. These were published in 1915 in a book by the same name. In this column, she sums up reasons given by the anti-suffrage forces arguing against the womens vote. Millers dry humor comes through as she pairs reasons that contradict each other. Through this simple pairing of mutually contradictory arguments of the anti-suffrage movement, she hopes to show that that their positions are self-defeating. Below these excerpts, youll find additional information about the arguments made. Our Own Twelve Anti-Suffragist Reasons Because no woman will leave her domestic duties to vote.Because no woman who may vote will attend to her domestic duties.Because it will make dissension between husband and wife.Because every woman will vote as her husband tells her to.Because bad women will corrupt politics.Because bad politics will corrupt women.Because women have no power of organization.Because women will form a solid party and outvote men.Because men and women are so different that they must stick to different duties.Because men and women are so much alike that men, with one vote each, can represent their own views and ours too.Because women cannot use force.Because the militants did use force. Reasons #1 and #2 Arguments #1 and #2 are both based on the assumption that a woman has domestic duties, and is based on the separate spheres ideologyÃ that women belong in the domestic sphere, taking care of the home and the children, while men belong in the public sphere. In this ideology, women ruled the domestic sphere and men the public sphere- women had domestic duties and men had public duties. In this division, voting is part of public duties, and thus not a womans proper place. Both arguments assume that women have domestic duties, and both assume that domestic duties and public duties cannot both be attended to by women. In argument #1, its assumed that all women (all being an obvious exaggeration) will chose to stick with their domestic duties, and thus wont vote even if they win the vote. In argument #2, its assumed that if women are permitted to vote, that they will all then abandon completely their domestic duties. Cartoons of the time often emphasized the latter point, showing men for ced into domestic duties. Reasons #3 and #4 InÃ arguments #3 and #4, the common topic is the effect of a womans vote on marriage, and both assume that husband and wife will discuss their votes. The first of these arguments assumes that if the husband and wife differ on how theyll vote, the fact that she is able to actually cast a vote will make for dissension in the marriage- assuming either that he wont care about her disagreement with his vote if he is the only one to cast a vote, or that she wont mention her disagreement unless shes permitted to vote. In the second, its assumed that all husbands have the power to tell their wives how to vote, and that the wives will obey. A third related argument, not documented in Millers list, was that women already had undue influence on voting because they could influence their husbands and then vote themselves, assuming apparently that women had more influence than men than vice versa. The arguments assume different outcomes when a husband and wife disagree about their vote: that the dissension will be a problem only if the woman can vote, that the woman will obey her husband, and in the third argument which Miller doesnt include, that the woman is more likely to shape her husbands vote than vice versa. Not all can be true of all couples who disagree, nor is it a given that husbands will know what their wives votes will be. Or, for that matter, that all women who will vote are married. Reasons #5 and #6 In this time period, machine politics and their corrupting influence was a common theme already. A few argued for the educated vote, assuming that many who were uneducated voted merely as the political machine wanted them to. In the words of one speaker in 1909, documented in theÃ New York Times,Ã The great majority of the Republicans and Democrats follow their leader to the polls as the children followed the Pied Piper. The domestic sphere ideology that assigns women to the home and men to public life (business, politics) is also assumed here. Part of this ideology assumes that women are more pure than men, less corrupt, in part because they are not in the public realm.Ã Women who are not properly in their place are bad women, and thus #5 argues that they will corrupt politics (as if its not corrupt already). Argument #6 assumes that women, protected by not having the vote from the corrupting influence of politics, will become corrupted by participating actively. This ignores that if politics is corrupt, the influence on women is already a negative influence. One key argument of the pro-suffrage activists is that in corrupt politics, the pure motives of women entering the political realm will clean it up. This argument may be criticized as similarly exaggerated and based on assumptions about womens proper place. Reasons #7 and #8 Pro-suffrage arguments included that womens vote would be good for the country because it would lead to needed reforms. Because there was no national experience with what would happen if women could vote, two contradictory predictions were possible by those who opposed womens vote. In reason #7, the assumption was that women were not organized politically, ignoring their organization to win the vote, work for temperance laws, work for social reforms. If women werent organized politically, then their votes wouldnt be very different from those of men, and there would be no effect of women voting. In reason #8, the pro-suffrage argument about the influence of women in voting was seen as something to fear, that what was already in place, supported by the men who voted, could be overturned if women voted. So these two arguments were mutually incompatible: either women would have an effect on the outcome of voting, or they would not. Reasons #9 and #10 In #9, the anti-suffrage argument is back to the separate spheres ideology, that mens sphere and womens spheres are justified because men and women are so different, and thus women are necessarily excluded by their nature from the political realm including voting. In #10, an opposite argument is mustered, that wives will vote the same as their husband anyway, to justify that women voting is unnecessary because men can vote what was sometimes called at the time a family vote. Reason #10 is also in tension with arguments #3 and #4 which assume that wife and husband will often have disagreement about how to vote. Part of the separate spheres argument was that women were by nature more peaceful, less aggressive, and thus unsuited to the public sphere. Or, in contrast, the argument was that women were by nature more emotional, potentially more aggressive and violent, and that women were to be relegated to the private sphere so that their emotions would be held in check. Reasons #11 and #12 Reason #11 assumes that voting sometimes is related to the use of force- voting for candidates who might be pro-war or pro-policing, for instance. Or that politics itself is about force. And then assuming that women are by nature unable to be aggressive or support aggression. Argument #12 justifies being against women voting, pointing to the force used by British and later American suffrage movements. The argument calls up images of Emmeline Pankhurst, women smashing windows in London, and plays into the idea that women are to be controlled by keeping them in the private, domestic sphere. Reductio ad absurdum Alice Duer Millers popular columns on the anti-suffrage arguments often played on similarÃ reductio ad absurdumÃ logical argument, attempting to show that if one followed all the anti-suffrage arguments, an absurd and untenable result followed, as the arguments contradicted each other. The assumptions behind some arguments, or the conclusions predicted, were impossible to both be true. Were some of these strawman arguments- that is, a refutation of an argument that wasnt really being made, an inaccurate view of the other sides argument? When Miller characterizes the opposing arguments as implying thatÃ allÃ women orÃ allÃ couples would do one thing, she may move into strawman territory. While sometimes exaggerating, and perhaps weakening her argument if she were in a merely logical discussion, her purpose was satire- to highlight through her dry humor the contradictions inherent in the arguments against women getting the vote.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
English Language and Communication - Essay Example Unfortuntely, the generl public sometimes ssocites foreign ccents with lower socil sttus. Spekers with foreign ccents my be viewed s less intelligent, less competent, nd even less ttrctive thn ntive English spekers. Other evidence indictes tht people in different countries hve been denied housing or employment simply becuse of their ccents. Negtive stereotyping nd stigmtiztion of English second-lnguge spekers is serious problem tht is excerbted by the frudulent clims of some shdy business people who sy tht they cn eliminte foreign ccents with expensive CDs nd lerning progrms. In fct there is no scientific evidence tht foreign ccent cn routinely be eliminted by ny such progrm. Theory relted to stigmtiztion defines this phenomenon s discrediting ttribute ssigned by society to those who differ in some mnner from society's expecttions, customs, nd mores. It results from socil ctegoriztion process tht llows for the quick identifiction of those who re similr nd those who re different nd cn therefore be considered s "others." It is not simply the ct of ctegoriztion tht results in stigmtiztion of certin groups, but, rther, the coupling of negtive vlue judgments with prticulr chrcteristics tht result in n dverse rection to difference. The dverse rection to ccents tkes the form of discrimintion, or beliefs, ttitudes, nd ctions directed t individuls due to "phenotypic chrcteristics or ethnic group ffilition" tht result in disprte life chnces or unequl outcomes. Disbility nd ethnicity re two such chrcteristics used to ctegorize individuls into stigmtized groups. There re multiple other stigmtizing chrcteristics, including femle gender nd single motherhood. Link nd Pheln (2001, 2001b) developed conceptul frmework for stigm tht ddresses the socil element inherent in the stigmtiztion process. Their frmework is bsed on interrelted components tht look beyond the individul, nd it ddresses the role of power in discrimintion. Within their frmework, lnguge stigm is conceptulized s five-stge process: () Differences re identified nd lbeled; (b) differences re linked to negtive stereotypes; (c) stereotyping llows for ctegoriztion nd plcement of stigmtized individuls into distinct groups, seprte from the dominnt culture; (d) seprtion llows for loss of sttus nd discrimintion; nd (e) power differentil exists between the lbeler nd the lbeled, mking discrimintion possible. Link nd Pheln (2001) identified three sources of discrimintion in reltion to ccent stigmtiztion: () direct or overt, (b) structurl or systemic, nd (c) socil-psychologicl processes operting through the stigmtized individul. The finl source, socil-psychologicl processes, describes sociliztion of stereotypicl perceptions nd the internliztion of such perceptions resulting in behviors tht my led to self-perpetuting discrimintion. With this source of discrimintion, individuls who believe tht they will be discriminted ginst my respond by withdrwing nd voiding socil contct, thereby negtively ffecting their support network nd incresing their levels of stress. Negative effects of accent on people's lives Fer of ccent stigmtiztion nd subsequent discrimintion my influence how individuls interct with others. Concelment of the
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Information communication technology - Essay Example Thus, it is preceded by an extensive study on the technological needs of a group before deciding on whatever application to be developed to meet the needs. Rothman, Sandberg, & Jacques, (2011) points out that there is a high rate of retention and acceptance of a project that meets the most pressing needs of people in a society. From that point forward, it is important to find out about how to develop the application. This should be in line with the intended use of the application and the people that will utilize. Hence, it will guide the design and the interface to be used while developing it. At the same time, the developer of that particular application should consider the ease with which the application will be put into use (Toyama, 2011). For instance, social applications should be simple to use and straight forward unlike those used in corporations that should incorporate the unique needs of each corporate sector. The training of these people on the use of an application is much easier when they are part of the conception process. The adoption process and the eager to learn about how the application works will be inspired by the level with which the application meets the needs of clients. Education on the use of new technology can be availed to the target people through various means. To begin with, there can be the distribution of printouts on the application and its benefits including the instruction on use. Apart from that media can provide a better platform to spread the technological advancements because it reaches a large number of people within a short period. In addition, one can organize training session at different places so as not to interfere with the day to day activities of people to train them on the use of the application and its benefits. There quite a number of expenses encountered in the process of developing an application. To begin with there is an initial cost of determining the community
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Major World War I Battles Essay 1914- The First Battle of the Marne. Up until September of 1914, the German army had steadily advanced through Belgium and France and was nearing the capital of France, Paris. Luckily, in the First Battle of the Marne, six French armies and one British army were able to stave off the German advance and set the stage for trench warfare for the next four years. 1915- Second Battle of Ypres- This was the second battle for the city of Ypres, which was located in western Belgium. For the Germans, this marked their first widespread usage of poison gas during the war. At Gravenstafl, Canadian troops were able to hold off the Germans by urinating into cloths and covering their faces with it. 1916- Battle of Verdun. The Battle of Verdun was meant to be GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s final push to break through French lines. A common expression was Ã¢â¬Å"to bleed the French whiteÃ¢â¬ . Both sides suffered immense casualties; however there was no clear victor even though the Germans were forced to withdraw. 1917- Battle of Caporetto. In this battle, otherwise known as the 12th Battle of Isonzo, Austro-Hungarian forces reinforced by German infantry finally broke through the Italian front line and routed the entire Italian army. Poison gas and storm troopers effectively contributed to the massive collapse of the Italian army. 1918- Battle of Cantigny. This was the first major battle involving U.S. forces up until that point in World War I. While, Cantigny was a relatively easy objective and was overshadowed by larger battles occurring elsewhere on the front, this battle was significant in demonstrating that the U.S. forces could be trusted to hold their own. 1. Up until the U.S. entrance into the war, the U.S. had already been providing massive amounts of supplies to the French and British, despite their claims of neutrality. This one-sided trading led to German attacks on U.S. merchant vessels and was one of the reasons the U.S. entered the war. The American Expeditionary Force did not actually face many battles as they arrived in Germany in early 1918. They did prove their worth and strength however in the Battle of Cantigny, where solely U.S. troops were able to capture the town of Cantigny and repulse several fierce German counterattacks. 2. Women had a huge role in the war effort at home, while African Americans directly contributed to the war effort. Women filled many of the jobs men left behind, especially in factories that were now facing huge demands for war supplies and low numbers of workers. Without women rising to fill these ranks, the American war effort would have been severely hindered. African Americans, although still discriminated and segregated in units, fought bravely and fiercely in World War I and earned the respect of many soldiers around them. 3. U.S. society
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Use of Satire in VoltaireÃ¢â¬â¢s CandideÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Voltaire successfully uses satire as a means of conveying his opinions about life.Ã In his novel, Candide, Voltaire satirizes the philosopher Liebnitz's philosophy that this is the best of all possible worlds.Ã In the novel, the perpetually optimistic and naive character, Candide, travels around the world, having various experiences that prove, at least to the reader, that evil does exist.Ã Ã In one particular passage, Voltaire uses explicit diction, exaggerated details and manipulated syntax in order to contrast the optimist's romantic view of battle with the horrible reality that is war. Voltaire's grossly exaggerated details give a somewhat comical description of an otherwise horrible event.Ã "The cannons battered down about... ...between the ridiculous ideas of the optimist and the truth that only the realist could see.Ã His choice of syntax leaves the reader with unforgettable images of war that will have a lasting effect.Ã Through his clever satire, Voltaire urges the reader to be more practical rather than happily ignorant Ã Work Cited: Voltaire.Ã Candide.Ã Trans. Bair, Lowell.Ã New York: Bantam Books, 1988.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Abstract The effects of a Happiness and Humor Group in the promotion of life satisfaction in an elderly center were examined. Fifteen participants in the beginning of the study were given a self-rated 32-item Life Satisfaction Scale Survey. After which they engaged in a once a week, 10-week program for the Happiness and Humor Group. Although the number of participants increased throughout the sessions, only the 15 original participants were administered the same test after completion of program. Introduction The purpose of the study is to address former findings conducted by the same researcher. A year ago, the researcher performed a qualitative study on stress. In the earlier study, there were 54 participants, ages 65-100 years, all of whom are members of several Southern California senior recreation programs. It was learned that the primary stressor among older adults was loneliness. As a follow-up to this, the researcher deemed it necessary to develop a group program that would address coping skills for the stressor. In late adulthood, people experience a lot of stressful moments when they face everyday with pessimism and regret about the past. In the opinion of the researcher, the psychological and over all well-being of the elderly is being neglected as the world faces many innovation and continued progress in technology, basically banking on younger people. The elderly continues to be an important part of society and their concerns have to be addressed. Since most of them, especially those living in senior centers, face loneliness as they are already far from relatives and family, the researcher thought that something should be done to ease the pain of being lonely. The Happiness and Humor Group was offered once a week for a 10-week period and was held at a local California Senior Center. An initial test, Life Satisfaction Scale (Lohmann, 1976) was conducted to the original 15 participants. The same is done after completion of program. The Happiness and Humor Group should improve the lives of the participants and increase their satisfaction for their present living status. They should be healthier and more psychologically balanced and score higher in the written scale survey after they finish all the sessions in the program. Review of Related Literature Old age in some books is concretely defined as the stage of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life after 65 years (Burgess, 1949). However, there are people younger than 65 years that tend to manifest those characteristics that encompass being of old age (Burgess, 1949). To clearly define old age, it is the last period of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life terminated by death. According to some books (Papalia, 2002), aging is divided into two stages: Primary and Secondary aging. Primary aging is said to be the time when the body inevitably deteriorates and this process continues through out the years. On the other hand, Secondary aging results from the abuse the body receives through the years. These abuses are often avoidable and are within the control of the human person (Papalia, 2002). Along with other indications of aging is the manifestation of psychological changes. Depression, for one is seen as one of the psychological problems faced by the elderly today. It also affects the biological aspect of living, how organs in our body work, blood flow, etc. Depression is said to speed up physical decline of aging and cause problems internally (Papalia, 2002). As much as there are negative and problematic aspects to aging, like all other stages of development in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life, there is also a positive light to this. Erik EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory on Human Development indicates that at this late period of adulthood, a person experiences a conflict between ego integrity versus despair (Papalia, 2002). One has to get past the troubles of yesterday, get over regret and what-could-have-beens and learn to accept the wholeness of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life and the coherence of learning picked up throughout the years. Nonetheless, there are different ways to measure a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life satisfaction in aging. There are scientists who measure this through health conditions, cardiovascular functioning, brain activity, psychological well-being, economic stability, etc (Papalia et al). Nevertheless, all of these play a role in a healthy personÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Although, in different studies, other people, for example, give more importance to their health or economic stability as their basis for an accomplished or successful aging. In the end, it may still depend on a personÃ¢â¬â¢s priorities in life that could help him or her achieve optimal aging. There are different theories that deal with aging. One is the Disengagement theory (Papalia, 2002), which simply states that at this particular stage, people tend to disengage themselves with society and focus more on themselves. They tend to be more in touch with their thoughts, feelings and emotions as they look back at the past and realize what they have learned, gone throughÃ¢â¬âboth positive and negative. On the other hand, there is the activity theory (Papalia, 2002) that indicates that to achieve better aging, one must engage him or her in different activities. Another important theory that should be taken into account when dealing with better aging is the Continuity Theory (Papalia, 2002). This states that there is a great need for the elderly to relate the present and the past. For them to be satisfied, they have to be able to continue doing what they are used to when they are younger. It could mean that a once healthy youthful man who is active in sports should not be hindered by age to play his interest. Activities should be present as it was when they had the energy to do it. Of course, one should strain themselves so much to the extent of injury. However, being able to do what one can do before, is an encouragement in itself and provides opportunity for proper aging. Aside from exercise and being active, humor and laughter help a lot in the aging process. As earlier mentioned, the elderly tend to be more serious as they reflect on their lives. This may produce a lot of negative feelings as they face regret and sorrow at losses. Negative feelings do not only affect mental health but also the entire functioning of the human person. There are a great number of studies and literature depicting humor and laughter as greatly influential to the improvement of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s over-all well-being. It improves the immune system, heart functioning and mental health, among others (Du Pre, 1998). According to studies, cortisol, a hormone secreted by the body during times of stress suppresses the proper functioning of the immune system making humans more inclined to getting sick (Du Pre, 1998). To counter this, studies have been made to show that laughter, in fact, acts against the negative effects of stress. (Du Pre, 1998). In a study made by Dillon, Minchoff and Baker (1985), participants were made to watch humorous videos. They have found that those who watched the videos had a significant increase in an Immonoglobulin A (IgA) level. This substance is a virus-fighting chemical made by the immune system (Du Pre, 1998). Studies like this show that indeed laughter and humor contribute a great deal to improving a personÃ¢â¬â¢s immune system. Laughter can be achieved through social interaction and other forms of entertainment such as videos and film viewing. Another study by Adams and McGuires (1986) showed that through a 6-week period observation of elderly participants watching funny videos, there had been a significant decrease in requests of pain-relieving medication (Du Pre, 1998). The social interaction portion of laughter is very much helpful, as well. Unfortunately, for the elderly, as they try to disengage themselves and focus more on Ã¢â¬Å"selfÃ¢â¬ , they forget to interact and the importance of sharing and relating with others. Such is the importance of group psychotherapy. According to Yalom (1995), group psychotherapy brings about instillation of hope, interpersonal learning, group cohesiveness and universality. People become more hopeful as they see that there are others who are in the same boat. They find out that there are those who can relate to them and that they are not the only ones who are going through the things that they are experiencing. The same is true for its universality. Group dynamics brings natural concern and care for others. They become more mindful of their surroundings and helpful, allowing themselves to be useful (Yalom, 1995). Interpersonal learning is picked up as each one involves him or herself in discussions. As they share their feelings and work out their problems they become more cohesive as a group and help in the development of the social skills that they thought they do not need anymore. Indeed, humor is a powerful force with the psychological and physiological effects on the body similar to the health benefits of aerobic exercise. The National Council on Aging promotes quality of life as an important factor for successful aging and a major component in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of happiness. In a study involving 182 participants, Vilaythong, Arnau, Rosen & Mascaro (2003) saw a relationship between humor and hopefulness. The researchers discovered an increase in the state of hopefulness after exposure to humor. Moreover, Wooten, (1996), stated Ã¢â¬Å"Finding humor in a situation and laughing freely with others can be a powerful antidote to stress and gives us a sense of perspective on our problems. Ã¢â¬ Of course, in all this, there is a mind set that should be taken into account. One must be optimistic about things and their outlook in life. At the age nearing death, it could be said that this is somewhat very difficult. The elderly is typically viewed as people who are not as functional as they were in their youth (Cox, 1993). The people or family surrounding a senior person should not automatically think that an elder needs his or her assistance. When an elderly feels that he or she has to be assisted in everything and could not perform independently, this may lead to a feeling of low self-worth and they become more pessimistic about things (Cox, 1993). If people can trust elders to carry out tasks, not to difficult for them to perform independently, then they learn to build confidence on what they can do. Furthermore, doubts about themselves, reservations and other unhealthy beliefs that maybe they cannot have purpose anymore, gradually disappears (Dryden, 2001). Here, one can see the effect that positive thinking or optimism provided by the environment, and later on re-learned by self, helps in healthy and a higher satisfaction in aging. Putting all this together, one could see that there is a right way to age. The elderly can get maximum satisfaction in aging if they conserved their energy and strength, if they are able to adapt to challenges and losses, and finally, if they could spend their time productively and wisely (Papalia, 2002). Method Subjects 17 men and women ages 65-89 years who volunteered were administered a pre- and post- self-rated 32-item Life Satisfaction Scale Survey (Lohman, 1976). The form used did not ask for the individual names of the participants. Rather, they were asked to put a fictitious name to ensure honesty and validity of results. The initial testing was conducted during the first session of the Happiness and Humor Group, and the final testing was done on the 10th and final session. Materials A scale survey called Life Satisfaction by Lohman (1976) was conducted. The Happiness and Humor group consisted of a 10-session program which was carried out once a week in a span of 10 weeks. Film viewing was used, this includes DVDs brought by the participants themselves and a few episodes starring Ellen DeGeneres. Lively music was also used in some of the sessions where there was dancing and exercise. Whistles, candies and other paraphernalia were also used in different sessions, serving different symbolisms and purpose. Procedure The first session of The Happiness and Humor Group at their senior center included 15 participants. They were given a test to measure their Life Satisfaction. They were not prompted for real names, rather they were asked to put fictitious names. Afterwards, the first activity began. Each participant was asked to pick a candy or energy bar which best suited or represented his or her personality. The session was ended by the researcher giving a lecture regarding pessimists and optimists. The second session included additional participants. The researcher welcomed the larger group with an activity Ã¢â¬Å"Lighten Your LoadÃ¢â¬ in which everyone shared a way that they could lift pressure from their lives. An intense discussion took place following the introduction of the topic, Ã¢â¬Å"The Typical Wants and Desires of Human BeingsÃ¢â¬ . An activity of light exercise to lively music concluded this session. More people joined during the third session. The importance of Exercise, Nutrition, Recreation and Attitude (ENRA) , and how these all added to a happier and healthy life was discussed. Exploring the ENRA principle of Attitude consisted of an activity Ã¢â¬Å"Count Your BlessingsÃ¢â¬ where the participants wrote down and shared three positive things that happened to them during the week. They were also asked to share with the group how they think they were able to contribute to the positive things that happened to them. At the end of this third session, group members, not the instructor, began to tell jokes which enabled them to connect with each other through shared humor. Similar activities followed after this session, at the same time, more people joined in. Group psychotherapy happens as they share with each other ways to cope with loneliness and how they started thinking more positively. On the seventh session, a discussion was initiated regarding how guilt blocked happiness. Film viewing was also then started. A brief episode that starred Ellen DeGeneres was shown to the group. The video was followed by a laughter prescription issued by the researcher. This entailed all the participants to have a daily dose of 15 minutes of laughter everyday. The session ended with the prescription papers actually signed by the researcher. The eighth session was composed of 25 participants. There was exercise and the researcher introduced an international folk dance. Such activity enforced the ENRA principles. Kazoos and whistles were distributed with the instructions to Ã¢â¬Å"blow the whistle on themselvesÃ¢â¬ when they got too serious. The session again, ended with a summarization of what they have learned that day and group sharing. The sessions that followed were characterized by more film viewing, exercise and dancing. The participants were encouraged to bring their own DVDs or videos should they want to share with the other group members. Later in the session, ENRA principles of Nutrition and Recreation were discussed as they were related to community availability. The researcher offered directories to farmersÃ¢â¬â¢ markets nearby and ideas for low cost activities and entertainment around the community. The participants were often reminded that happy people eat healthy foods, exercise, play, and most importantly, have a positive attitude toward life. At the tenth and last session, each participant received a certificate of achievement for being a part of Happiness and Humor Group. They celebrated their success with each other at a healthy buffet which consisted of fresh and healthy food that they themselves purchased from the local farmersÃ¢â¬â¢ market. The session ended with humorous stories, ones that they could share with friends or recall for their own 15 minutes of laughter just had been prescribed. Results n=17 Mean SD Pre: 42. 605 54. 256 22. 6 Post: 65. 828 72. 883 13. 7 Difference between tests 5. 6 Table 1. Results for Life Satisfaction Scale Survey (Lohman 1976) Table 1 shows the mean and standard deviations of the group before and after the intervention. Specifically, the mean before the intervention is 54. 256, and this has increased to 72. 883 after the happiness and humor sessions. Significance Level 0. 5 Table 2. T-Tests Variable Method Variances DF t-Value Pr>[t] Score Pooled Equal 32 2. 90 0. 0067 Score Satterthwaite Unequal 26. 3 2. 90 0. 0074 The conduct of the t-tests for dependent groups show that the post-test score is significantly higher than the pre-test score (t=2. 90, pF Score Folder F 16 2. 73 0. 0528 The insignificant F-value shows in LeveneÃ¢â¬â¢s test for equality of variances (F=2. 73, p>. 05) suggests that both score distributions (pre and post) come from normally distributed score populations. Discussion From the statistical results above, one can see that there is significant change in the participants. Also, qualitatively, their outlook has changed significantly and they have become more optimistic. In the beginning, it was evident that group dynamics and sharing are really effective tools. One member, Cam, 75, shared eagerly during the first session that her selection of the candy bar reminded her of growing up in an orphanage in Scotland. Another, Abraham, 82, told about how he would eat a bite-sized candy bar and relax in the afternoon. The verbal and nonverbal connections were being established between group members, even reaching out to the silent and timid ones. Participants also felt more at ease because of the environment that was presented to them. Jokes are highly welcomed and encouraged. In fact, more than once, the researcher would tell a joke, reminding the participants of the group the theme of happiness that is the program. Also, it encouraged people to show and share parts of their lives through funny and touching anecdotes. Group cohesiveness was noticeable by the fourth session and continued throughout the remainder of the sessions. Participants served each other coffee, listened without interrupting, and best of all, made plans to socialize outside of the weekly group meetings. Edna, 68, stated that she felt like a kinder person. She mentioned that she called friends and invited them to her apartment, equating to a more confident and more sociable outlook in life. Another participant, Keiko, a timid, more quite 83-year-old, cried at the end of one of the sessions when she shared that she allowed her son to drain her of happiness. She declared that she was going to put into practice what she had learned in the group. Sharings were always rewarded and welcomed eagerly by other participants. They have learned to become more open to one anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s concerns and have become greatly supportive of one another. Both participants and researcher saw how popular the Happiness and Humor Group grew. People came in wanting to join because they say that Ã¢â¬Å"they want to be happy. Ã¢â¬ Even during the course of the program changes and positive results could already be seen in the participants. They themselves would say how much they are already evolving. For instance, Sam, 82, disclosed that he was easily annoyed by many people and he wanted to learn a better way of relating to those who bothered him which showed a shift in his attitude. Many other observations and learnings came from the members themselves. There were observed comments such as a time when it was noted how appointments are made with doctors and dentists for specific health concerns, but one never sets a meeting for life-renewing recreation and leisure. This realization came about during the session when they were given laughter prescriptions. In the latter part of the program, one could easily detect that people are greatly more confident to share personal matters as compared when they were just starting. They were able to vent out concerns and this made them feel really better, emotionally, most especially. One member, Dixie, brought up during one of the sessions the issue about families. The participants spoke of family traditions and ritual, children and parents playing together, laughter and honest, open communication without retaliation. Dixie, once an abused spouse, went on to say that the group has empowered her to be happy and feel less guilty. After evaluation of all these, the researcher feels confident that the Humor and Happiness Group program indeed served its purpose. The elderly felt more comfortable to socialize and felt less lonely, seeing that there are those around them who can relate with their feelings and emotions. They think more positively and are more accepting of where they are now, hopefully, looking at the past with less regret. They are equipped with knowledge of adequate exercise, varying forms of it, to keep them fit, proper nutrition to keep their minds healthy and working. Researchers in gerontology, leisure services, social work and related disciplines are eager to discover how to increase the quality of life for older adults, particularly those stressed by loneliness. Furthermore, many researchers have followed a line of investigation comparing the relationship between possessing a sense of humor and good health. Leslie Gibson, a hospice community liaison, has observed that the more developed the sense of humor, the more graceful the acceptance of physical change and deterioration associated with aging. The Happiness and Humors Group developed for an aging population demonstrated that humor was a significant part of increasing their life satisfaction. In part, it was made possible by connecting the participants with others during the ten sessions in order to create a bond, a sense of belonging through humor and laughter. The researcher encourages administrators and practitioners to explore the possibility of launching a similar group within their own communities to help promote greater life satisfaction among the older adult populations that they serve. Lastly, a further study could be conducted similar to the Happiness and Humor Group. Other activities such as one on one consultations with psychologists and patients could be conducted to maybe reach out to those who are really having a hard time opening up in big groups. Frequency of the session could also be improved, making it twice to thrice a week, instead of once a week. The total length of the program could actually be considered enough to host all needed activities for the participants. However, if such program would be revised, adding more that could specifically cater to the needs of other elders in other cultures, a longer program period is advised. Another improvement could be made by asking the participants who just later joined the Happiness and Humor Group to provide feedback and have them accomplish surveys as to how the program actually enriched their lives. Family support could also be added to the curriculum, although this may be hard for those who have relatives or family far from the center where they are in. All in all, the Happiness and Humor Group could be considered a success on its own and in the future when it would actually be implemented in senior centers, the researcher hopes that more elderly would be able to participate and experience the life-changing process the program offers. References Alpert, J. E. & Fava, M. (2004). Handbook of chronic depression:Diagnosis and therapeutic management. New York: Marcel Dekker. Anastasi, A. & Urbina, S. (2002). Psychological Testing (7th Ed.) New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Arnau, R. C. , Rosen, D. H. & Vilaythong, A. P. (2003). Humor and hope: Can humor increase hope? International Journal of Humor Research. 16-1, 78-89. Ayres, V. E. , Mackenzie, K. R. , Weisman, M. M. , Welch, & R. R. , Wilfley, D. E. (2000). Interpersonal psychotherapy for group. New York: Basic Books. Bernard, M. E. , & DiGuiseppe, R. (1994). Rational-emotive consultation in applied settings. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Burgess, E. W. , Cavan, R. S. , Golhamer, H. , & Havighurst, R. J. (1949). Personal adjustment in old age. Chicago: Science Research Associates. Boyle, G. J, & Joss-Reid, J.M. (2004). Relationship of humour to health: A psychometric investigation. British Journal of Health Psychology, 9, 51-66. Cox, C. (1993). The frail elderly: Problems, needs and community responses. Westport, CT: Auburn House Paperback. Dryden, W. (2001). Reason to change: A rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) workbook. New York: Brunner-Routledge. Du Pre, A. (1998). Humor and the healing arts: A multimethod analysis of humor use in health care. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Elmes, D. G. , Kontowitz, B. H. , Roediger III, H. L. (2001). Experimental psychology (7th Ed. ). Singapore: Wadsworth. Macfarland, K.(2005). Battling late-life depression: Short term psychotherapy for depression in older adults-A review of evidence based studies since 2000. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association. 8(4). Papalia, D. E. , & Olds, S. W. (2002). Human development (8th Ed. ). New York: McGraw Hill. Pinel, J. P. J. (2003). Biopsychology (5th Ed. ). Boston: Pearson. Roeckelein, J. E. (2002). The psychology of humor: A reference guide and annotated bibliography. Westport, CT: Greenwood. Szabo, A. (2003). The acute effects of humor and exercise on mood and anxiety. Journal of Leisure Research. 35(2). Turnbull, M. & Wolfson, S. (2002). Effects of exercise and outcome feedback on mood: Evidence for misattribution. Journal of Sport Behavior 25, 4. Wooten, P. (1996). Humor: An anecdote for stress. Holistic Nursing Practice. 10, 49-55. Yalom, I. D. (1995). The theory and practice of group psychotherapy. New York: Basic Books. Ã Plagiarism Report Generated by EVE 2. 4 7/3/2007 11:46:32 PM Document: Humor 1. doc Amount of document detected to be plagiarized: . 54% (less than 1%) Please Note: Because plagiarsm on this paper is below 15%, please check these results carefully to make sure plagiarism has in fact occured. Matching material was found on these sites: http://www. sp. uconn. edu/~yian/frl/26sptrel. htm Student essay with matching content underlined for easy detection: Running Head: LIFE SATISFACTION FOR SENIOR CENTER PARTCIPANTS Happiness and Humor Group Promotes Life Satisfaction for Senior Center Participants Abstract The effects of a Happiness and Humor Group in the promotion of life satisfaction in an elderly center were examined. Fifteen participants in the beginning of the study were given a self-rated 32-item Life Satisfaction Scale Survey. After which they engaged in a once a week, 10-week program for the Happiness and Humor Group. Although the number of participants increased throughout the sessions, only the 15 original participants were administered the same test after completion of program. Introduction The purpose of the study is to address former findings conducted by the same researcher. A year ago, the researcher performed a qualitative study on stress. In the earlier study, there were 54 participants, ages 65-100 years, all of whom are members of several Southern California senior recreation programs. It was learned that the primary stressor among older adults was loneliness. As a follow-up to this, the researcher deemed it necessary to develop a group program that would address coping skills for the stressor. In late adulthood, people experience a lot of stressful moments when they face everyday with pessimism and regret about the past. In the opinion of the researcher, the psychological and over all well-being of the elderly is being neglected as the world faces many innovation and continued progress in technology, basically banking on younger people. The elderly continues to be an important part of society and their concerns have to be addressed. Since most of them, especially those living in senior centers, face loneliness as they are already far from relatives and family, the researcher thought that something should be done to ease the pain of being lonely. The Happiness and Humor Group was offered once a week for a 10-week period and was held at a local California Senior Center. An initial test, Life Satisfaction Scale (Lohmann, 1976) was conducted to the original 15 participants. The same is done after completion of program. The Happiness and Humor Group should improve the lives of the participants and increase their satisfaction for their present living status. They should be healthier and more psychologically balanced and score higher in the written scale survey after they finish all the sessions in the program. Review of Related Literature Old age in some books is concretely defined as the stage of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life after 65 years (Burgess, 1949). However, there are people younger than 65 years that tend to manifest those characteristics that encompass being of old age (Burgess, 1949). Ergo, to clearly define old age, it is the last period of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life terminated by death. According to some books (Papalia, 2002), aging is divided into two stages: Primary and Secondary aging. Primary aging is said to be the time when the body inevitably deteriorates and this process continues through out the years. On the other hand, Secondary aging results from the abuse the body receives through the years. These abuses are often avoidable and are within the control of the human person (Papalia, 2002). Along with other indications of aging is the manifestation of psychological changes. Depression, for one is seen as one of the psychological problems faced by the elderly today. It also affects the biological aspect of living, how organs in our body work, blood flow, etc. Depression is said to speed up physical decline of aging and cause problems internally (Papalia, 2002). As much as there are negative and problematic aspects to aging, like all other stages of development in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life, there is also a positive light to this. Erik EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory on Human Development indicates that at this late period of adulthood, a person experiences a conflict between ego integrity versus despair (Papalia, 2002). One has to get past the troubles of yesterday, get over regret and what-could-have-beens and learn to accept the wholeness of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life and the coherence of learning picked up throughout the years. Nonetheless, there are different ways to measure a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life satisfaction in aging. There are scientists who measure this through health conditions, cardiovascular functioning, brain activity, psychological well-being, economic stability, etc (Papalia et al). Nevertheless, all of these play a role in a healthy personÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Although, in different studies, other people, for example, give more importance to their health or economic stability as their basis for an accomplished or successful aging. In the end, it may still depend on a personÃ¢â¬â¢s priorities in life that could help him or her achieve optimal aging. There are different theories that deal with aging. One is the Disengagement theory (Papalia, 2002), which simply states that at this particular stage, people tend to disengage themselves with society and focus more on themselves. They tend to be more in touch with their thoughts, feelings and emotions as they look back at the past and realize what they have learned, gone through-both positive and negative. On the other hand, there is the activity theory (Papalia, 2002) that indicates that to achieve better aging, one must engage him or her in different activities. Another important theory that should be taken into account when dealing with better aging is the Continuity Theory (Papalia, 2002). This states that there is a great need for the elderly to relate the present and the past. For them to be satisfied, they have to be able to continue doing what they are used to when they are younger. It could mean that a once healthy youthful man who is active in sports should not be hindered by age to play his interest. Activities should be present as it was when they had the energy to do it. Of course, one should strain themselves so much to the extent of injury. However, being able to do what one can do before, is an encouragement in itself and provides opportunity for proper aging. Aside from exercise.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
The nature of good and evil one of humanities never ending conflicts since the beginning of time. For instance in the novella Ã¢â¬Å"Heart of DarknessÃ¢â¬ by Joseph Conrad explores the issues surrounding imperialism, and centers Marlow the main character. The conflict between good and evil is particularly evident throughout the story. In following the novella you begin analyzing and thinking theories for instance: Ã¢â¬Å"people are inherently evil and itÃ¢â¬â¢s expressed in varieties of formsÃ¢â¬ , or Ã¢â¬Å"people are inherently good, but become corrupted by society and other outside forcesÃ¢â¬ . In my perspective IÃ¢â¬â¢m in position of Ã¢â¬Å"people are inherently good, but become corrupted by society and other outside forcesÃ¢â¬ I do believe theyÃ¢â¬â¢re people who are inherently good but influenced negatively by society and endure on evil. I stand on this position because in Ã¢â¬Å"Heart of DarknessÃ¢â¬ Marlow expresses Ã¢â¬Å"The word ? ivoryÃ¢â¬â¢ rang in the air, was whispered, was sighed. You would think they were praying to it. A taint of imbecile rapacity blew through it all, like a whiff from some corpse. By Jove! IÃ¢â¬â¢ve never seen anything so unreal in my life. And outside, the silent wilderness surrounding this cleared speck on the earth struck me as something great and invincible, like evil or truth, waiting patiently for the passing away of this fantastic invasion. Ã¢â¬ (Conrad 368) This quote Marlow clarifies that heÃ¢â¬â¢s in this situation because of the white manÃ¢â¬â¢s pursuit for ivory which caused death and greed; in which it proves the point of good people influenced by evil forces. Another example of this is in Part III in Ã¢â¬Å"Heart of DarknessÃ¢â¬ when Marlow and Kurtz finally meet each other through the steamshipÃ¢â¬â¢s departure from the Inner Station. Here Marlow describes his developing relationship with Kurtz in terms of intimacy and betrayal. Marlow also indicates that the Africa natives are responsible for KurtzÃ¢â¬â¢s current condition of evilness and cruelty. Finally in the end after Kurtz dies his last words were Ã¢â¬Å"the horror, the horrorÃ¢â¬ I believe Kurtz is referring to the darkness in his heart or emptiness, also being a failure of his destiny. Chinua Achebe feels differently about the novella Ã¢â¬Å"Heart of DarknessÃ¢â¬ mainly because its concept of evil. She expresses that Ã¢â¬Å"The Heart of Darkness projects the image of Africa as Ã¢â¬Å"the other world,Ã¢â¬ the antithesis of Europe and therefore of civilization, a place where a manÃ¢â¬â¢s vaunted intelligence and refinement are finally mocked by triumphant bestialityÃ¢â¬ in other words evil. Achebe also disliked the fact how the African natives were perceived as ignorant and simply just faded into the background. Achebe concluded by stating Ã¢â¬Å"realized that no easy optimism was possible. And there is something totally wrong in offering bribes to the West in return for its good opinion of Africa. Ã¢â¬ In conclusion Africa was where colonist evil dwelled in Ã¢â¬Å"Heart of DarknessÃ¢â¬ . Evil in which takes the form of imperialism, hypocrisy, ambiguity, and moral confusion. In which case proves my theory people are inherently good, but become corrupted by society and other outside forces. You can fallow Marlow in the novella in how he is forced to align himself with either the hypocritical and malicious colonial bureaucracy or the malevolent Kurtz. This will assure the reasons why the nature of good and evil is one of humanities never ending conflicts.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Cyber Security and E-Commerce Many businesses in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s financially competitive corporate world rely heavily on e-commerce to survive with their markets. Companies such as Ebay, AOL, Amazon, and Yahoo, are e-commerce-based on rely solely it solely for their revenues. With this in mind, this issue of cyber-security is tied directly in link with the business that sell using e-commerce and the customers who buy their products; as is the threat of cyber terrorism, which has the ability to disrupt e-commerce servers, steal consumer information, and essentially cause economic chaos throughout the e-commerce world. Many serious issues exist within this link, most of which deal with the safety of making purchases over the Internet. Many e-commerce customers have major concerns with the fact that their billing information my be intercepted while in transit over the Internet. Many questions have been raised as to whether or not personal information is encrypted, and moreover, whether the encryption stays encrypted. In relation to this, In a February 10, 2003 article from Indian Express Newspaper reports, Ã¢â¬Å"A recent survey has shown that of the total online assessors, only 43 per cent are online buyers, the rest are concerned about security and privacy of their personal information, especially their credit card number. Does this mean that those who are transacting, on the Internet are ignorant about the risk? Banks offer electronic funds transfer service; do they offer an assurance that customer's account will not be debited without his consent? How can we have an assurance that the cybershop-keeper and its staff will not misuse our credit card number?Ã¢â¬  In answering these questions, in an article from the Kauffman Center for Entrepreneurial Leadership, Edna Sarty reports, Ã¢â¬Å"Despite industry growth, consumer concern over Internet security is very strong, limiting the potential of e-commerce. Internet security problems have a neg... Free Essays on Cyber Security Free Essays on Cyber Security Cyber Security and E-Commerce Many businesses in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s financially competitive corporate world rely heavily on e-commerce to survive with their markets. Companies such as Ebay, AOL, Amazon, and Yahoo, are e-commerce-based on rely solely it solely for their revenues. With this in mind, this issue of cyber-security is tied directly in link with the business that sell using e-commerce and the customers who buy their products; as is the threat of cyber terrorism, which has the ability to disrupt e-commerce servers, steal consumer information, and essentially cause economic chaos throughout the e-commerce world. Many serious issues exist within this link, most of which deal with the safety of making purchases over the Internet. Many e-commerce customers have major concerns with the fact that their billing information my be intercepted while in transit over the Internet. Many questions have been raised as to whether or not personal information is encrypted, and moreover, whether the encryption stays encrypted. In relation to this, In a February 10, 2003 article from Indian Express Newspaper reports, Ã¢â¬Å"A recent survey has shown that of the total online assessors, only 43 per cent are online buyers, the rest are concerned about security and privacy of their personal information, especially their credit card number. Does this mean that those who are transacting, on the Internet are ignorant about the risk? Banks offer electronic funds transfer service; do they offer an assurance that customer's account will not be debited without his consent? How can we have an assurance that the cybershop-keeper and its staff will not misuse our credit card number?Ã¢â¬  In answering these questions, in an article from the Kauffman Center for Entrepreneurial Leadership, Edna Sarty reports, Ã¢â¬Å"Despite industry growth, consumer concern over Internet security is very strong, limiting the potential of e-commerce. Internet security problems have a neg...
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
The Fairy Tales of Charles Perrault Although much lesser known than his literary heirs the Brothers Grimm and Hans Christian Andersen, 17th-century French writer, Charles Perrault, not only solidified the fairy tale as a literary genre but wrote nearly all of the genres most signature stories, including Cinderella, Sleeping Beauty, Little Red Riding Hood, Bluebeard, Puss in Boots, Tom Thumb, and the larger designation of Mother Goose stories. Perrault published his Stories or Tales from Times Past (subtitled Mother Goose Tales) in 1697 and arrived at the end of a long and not entirely satisfying literary life. Perrault was nearly 70 years old and, while he was well-connected, his contributions had been more intellectual than artistic. But this slim volume comprised of three of his earlier verse stories and eight new prose stories achieved a success that hadnt seemed possible to the man whod long made his main living as a civil servant.Ã Impact on LiteratureÃ Some of Perraults stories were adapted from oral tradition, some were inspired by episodes from earlier works, (including Boccaccios The Decameron and Apuleius The Golden Ass), and some were inventions wholly new to Perrault. What was most significantly new was the idea of turning magical folk tales into sophisticated and subtle forms of written literature. While we now think of fairy tales as primarily childrens literature, there was no such thing as childrens literature in Perraults time. With this in mind, we can see that the morals of these tales take on more worldly purposes, despite their slyly clever packaging within the fantastical universe of fairies, ogres, and talking animals. While Perraults original tales are hardly the versions that were fed to us as children, they also cant be expected to be the feminist and socialist alternate versions that we might wish them to be (see Angela Carters 1979 story collection, The Bloody Chamber, for this kind of modern twist; Carter had translated an edition of Perraults fairy tales in 1977 and was inspired to create her own versions as a response). Perrault was an upper-class intellectual during the reign of the Sun King. Unlike the fable-writer Jean de La Fontaine, whose rich narratives often criticized the powerful and took the side of the underdog (in fact he himself was not in favor with the megalomaniacal Louis XIV), Perrault didnt have much of an interest in rocking the boat. Instead, as a leading figure on the modern side of the Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns, he brought new forms and sources to literature to create something that even the ancients had never seen. La Fontaine was on the side of the ancients and wrote fables in the vein of Aesop, and while La Fontaine was much more lyrically sophisticated and intellectually clever, it was Perraults modernity that lay the foundation for a new kind of literature thats created a culture all its own. Perrault may have been writing for adults, but the fairy tales that he first put on paper spawned a revolution in what kinds of stories could be made into literature. Soon, writing for children spread throughout Europe and eventually across the rest of the world. The results and even his own works may have gone far out of Perraults intent or control, but thats what often happens when you introduce something new into the world. It seems that theres a moral somewhere in that. References in Other WorksÃ Perraults tales entered culture in ways that far transcend his own personal artistic reach. They permeated virtually every level of modern art and entertainment- from rock songs to popular films to the most sophisticated stories by literary fabulists such as Angela Carter and Margaret Atwood. With all these tales forming a common cultural currency, the clarity and intent of the originals have often been either obscured or contorted to serve sometimes questionable meanings. And while a film like 1996s Freeway creates a brilliant and necessary twist on the Little Red Riding Hood story, many more popular versions of Perraults works (from the saccharine Disney films to the grotesquely insulting Pretty Woman) manipulate their audiences by promoting reactionary gender and class stereotypes. Much of this is in the originals, though, and its often surprising to see just what is and what isnt in the original versions of these seminal fairy tales. Tales by Perrault In Puss in Boots, the youngest of three sons inherits only a cat when his father dies, but through the cats wily scheming the young man ends up wealthy and married to a princess. Perrault, who was in favor with Louis XIV, provides two interconnected butÃ competingÃ morals to theÃ tale, and he clearly had the machinations of the court in mind with this witty satire. On the one hand, the tale promotes the idea of using hard work and ingenuity to get ahead, rather than just relying on your parents money. But on the other hand, the story warns against being taken in by pretenders who may have achieved their wealth in unscrupulous ways. Thus, a tale that seems like a didactic childrens fable actually serves as a double-edged send-up of class mobility as it existed in the seventeenth century. Perraults Little Red Riding Hood reads much like the popularized versions that we all grew up with, but with one big difference: the wolf eats the girl and her grandmother, and nobody comes along to save them. Without the happy ending that the Brothers Grimm supply in their version, the story serves as a warning to young women against talking to strangers, especially against charming wolves who seem civilized but are perhaps even more dangerous. Theres no heroic male to slay the wolf and save Little Red Riding Hood from her own gullible innocence. Theres only danger, and its up to young women to learn how to recognize it. Like Puss in Boots, Perraults Cinderella also has two competing and contradictory morals, and they likewise discuss questions of marriageability and class connection. One moral claims that charm is more important than looks when it comes to winning a mans heart, an idea that suggests that anyone can achieve happiness, regardless of their conventional assets. But the second moral declares that no matter what natural gifts you have, you need a godfather or godmother in order to put them to good use. This message acknowledges, and perhaps supports, societys profoundly uneven playing field. The most strange and amazing of Perraults tales, Donkey Skin, is also one of his least known, probably because its shocking grotesqueries have no way of being watered down and made easily palatable. In the story, a dying queen asks her husband to remarry after her death, but only to a princess even more beautiful than her. Eventually, the kings own daughter grows to surpass her dead mothers beauty, and the king falls deeply in love with her. At the suggestion of her fairy godmother, the princess makes seemingly impossible demands of the king in exchange for her hand, and the king somehow fulfills her demands each time to both shimmering and terrifying effect. Then she demands the skin of the kings magic donkey, which defecates gold coins and is the source of the kingdoms wealth. Even this the king does, and so the princess flees, wearing the donkey skin as a permanent disguise. In Cinderella-like fashion, a young prince rescues her from her squalor and marries her, and events transpire so that her father also ends up happily paired with a neighboring widow-queen. Despite the tidiness of all its ends, this is the story that contains the messiest and wildest of Perraults invented worlds. Perhaps that is why posterity has been unable to tame it into a version that feels comfortable presenting to children. There is no Disney version, but for the adventurous, Jacques Demys 1970 film starring Catherine Deneuve manages to capture all of the storys perversity while casting the loveliest and most magical spell on its viewers.