Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Method of Money Laundering Essay

Structuring deposits The Bank Secrecy Act of 1970 requires banks to report any deposits exceeding $10,000.01. This is not a problem for most of us, but it is a big barrier to money-laundering criminals looking to rid themselves of some cumbersome currency. Launderers will hire low-level lackeys to make multiple small deposits, either on different days or at various branches on the same day to work around this pesky law that attempts to deter money laundering, It is a complex, time-consuming way to launder money, and one that has been rendered even more difficult by computer algorithms that look for suspicious deposit behavior and raise an red flag when one is found. see more:speech on money for asl Banks Far more exciting and global in the practice of money laundering is the use of offshore and overseas banks. Nations like the Cayman Islands, Bahamas and Panama are very accommodating to criminals looking to legitimize their cash; these nations are unrestricted with regards to burdensome banking laws and anti-laundering procedures, which ultimately helps hide the launderers behind strict veils of secrecy. Opening accounts in a number of these offshore accounts allows launderers to move their money around and create a nearly impenetrable defense against curious investigators. Some countries (China and Pakistan among others) have a history of well-established underground banks that have been accepting deposits from sketchy clients for centuries. They legally operate outside of the mainstream banking system and outside the control of the government. There is often no paper work, just the reputation of the principals involved. Shell companies Enterprising criminals looking to legalize their cash can set up various companies that exist for the sole purpose of money laundering. These so-called shell companies often offer some sort of service that can easily be fudged and usually accepts cash as payment when doing legitimate business (beauty salons and trades like plumbing are commonly used). The dirty money is funneled into the company, made to look like legitimate income with fake invoices and receipts and then deposited into the shell company’s accounts as clean, wonderfully spendable cash money. Using these shell companies to stay one step ahead of â€Å"the man† is a shell game of its own. Forensic accountants can strip away layers of deceit and reveal the shady transactions below, which means that only true criminal masterminds with really good accountants should consider this as a laundering option. Legitimate businesses Criminals looking to clean their money can also be good corporate citizens by investing in legitimate business. Cash-rich businesses like bars and strip clubs are the most common, with the dirty money seeded in with the legitimate revenue and squirreled away in the business’ bank accounts. The safer method is to use the dirty money to â€Å"buy† the services offered by the legit businesses, but this necessitates lots of fake invoicing and troublesome number fudging — and you can safely assume that most criminals choose the easy money of crime out of laziness, which makes this a decidedly unattractive alternative when looking for money-laundering options. Gambling With so many cash transactions taking place every day, casinos have become highly valuable money-laundering institutions because chips can be purchased anonymously with dirty money and after a period of time they can be cashed back in and turned into clean money. Even if the casino follows the letter of the law and asks for ID to record the transaction, the Feds are powerless to prove the money was ever dirty. Global criminal enterprises can even ask that the â€Å"winnings† be used as credit at the casino’s overseas franchises. With some games offering as much as 93% return on your money, certain criminals are willing to chance some losses and turn their illicit cash into legitimate money by actually gambling with it. One particularly popular method involves two associates at the roulette table. While one bets a substantial amount on red, the other places a similar amount on black. Provided neither zero nor double zero come up, one side doubles the money and turns it legit at the same time. However, sophisticated surveillance and casino security have limited this scheme in recent years. Down at the track, some crafty launderers will put the word out that they are willing to buy winning tickets at a premium. They then cash in the tickets as clean money and pass the bonus of cleaning the money onto the unsuspecting legitimate gambler, who is usually so stunned at their good fortune that they cannot appreciate their predicament. No money, No problems It is an enviable position that many would like to be in — having so much cash that you do not know what to do with it. However, cleaning money is harder work than earning it. Criminals have to stay one step ahead of the law and they constantly run the risk of losing their cash to shady launderers or eagle-eyed cops. Often, it is not the drug dealing or the extortion that gets these law breakers busted, it is their attempts at concealing the money. So, if you ever decide to get in â€Å"The Game,† watch what you do with your money.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

A Reflection on Chasing Zero Essay

Chasing Zero, I believe, is a documentary that will never completely leave my mind as long as I work in the field of healthcare. Chasing Zero presents the topic of medical errors: it portrays the disastrous effects they can have on their recipients and how they can ruin the lives of the healthcare providers at fault. However, beyond bringing forth awareness about the harm that medical errors can cause, Chasing Zero also presents a goal. This goal is to decrease the amount of medical errors that occur, by such a significant amount, that the resulting number is zero. Zero is not an easy objective, and many people may think it is impossible. However, no matter the difficulty, it is the responsibility of every healthcare worker to do his or her part to reduce the general number of medical errors occurring as much as possible. As a nursing student, I am particularly glad that I was exposed to the concept of medical errors this early on in my training so I can actively define my role in preventing them. The documentary reminded me that I am entering a profession where my actions have real and significant consequences. A sloppy or incomplete performance in medicine is unacceptable and I must find the best way to become as competent as possible. I was immediately encouraged to become a better student in the classroom, to work harder and retain necessary knowledge that I know may be of great consequence one day. Additionally, since my skills have not yet been fully established, I can take certain measures to ensure that bad and perhaps dangerous habits which can lead to errors, do not develop. I further believe that Chasing Zero will reduce errors simply because it brought awareness of the subject to the public. Now, when people visit a healthcare facility for any reason, they will understand that the professionals working with them are human, and can therefore make mistakes. Through the documentary, people can learn to be their own advocates and to question anything that their healthcare provider is doing which is unclear to them. Chasing Zero presented many concepts to think about and a goal that, if worked for, can be achieved, at least on a personal level. As technology advances and awareness increases, this process might slowly become easier. Instruments such as bar code scanners for drug distribution are constantly being created or improved and new policies are continuously  being instituted in hospitals. I am grateful that I had the opportunity to watch Chasing Zero and I hope to be a part of the movement that strives, every day, to successfully remove the concept of medical errors from our lives.

Is there any danger in relying on a system like SAIGA? Essay

1.In what manner does SAIGA act as an MIS and DSS? For DSS, which supports problem specific decision making, SAIGA acts in the same manner by doing the following: Provides useful charts that managers review to spot patterns and problems in scheduling and resources. Assists in management making effective decisions. Assists management with allocating resources. As far as MIS, which helps an organization â€Å"do things right†, SAIGA act in this manner by doing the following: Decline in flight delays More appropriate and timely assignment in resources Faster turnaround time for flights Faster through time for passengers Reduced Operating costs Directing passengers to parking stands and gates 2.Why is scheduling of this scale best left to information systems such as SAIGA rather than to human managers? With the ongoing list of tasks that are provided with the operations of an airport as listed in the Case 1 Studies, being able to deliver the efficient outcome of all of these resources is beyond the skills of any person, and unfortunately, to leave to a human manager leaves more room for human error. One could not successfully be obligated to do all of the following without sufficient flaws: Gates Parking Stands Fuel Trucks Check-In Counters Buses Luggage Conveyor Belts Variety of Ground Equipment Personnel Etc. With the assistance of SAIGA, this is all possible and it additionally provides a way to reduce stress and increase the overall Profit Net Margin while assisting with day to day operations. CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS 1. What other industries might benefit from an information like SAIGA? Other industries might benefit from an information system like SAIGA: Hospitals Nursing Homes Prisons/Jails School Systems City Buses / Transportation Offices Commercial Businesses Etc.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Opening Case Study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Opening Case Study - Essay Example Various players should understand their roles as protectors of the students and other actors such as employees from any form of abuse. The people who first became aware of the situation and the allegations should have ensured that proper investigations were conducted to ensure that the allegations were true or not and respond appropriately. The sanctions against the Penn State in my opinion were not sufficient. More measures that are drastic should have been taken including a complete change of management to ensure that responsible leaders are in place. The first student clearly illustrates the culture of unethical behaviour and explains the various players that were involved in the scandal. The student further shows the sections that were taken and what should have been to avoid worsening of the situations. He concludes that reporting was delayed to salvage university name and its superiors involved The second student has also conducted an analysis of the situation that is adequate with the failures of leadership and culture illustrated in the analysis. He foresee the profound effect of the act to the children and he is categorical that Pen State had the mandate to fix all loopholes. The mistakes done should be used to teach a lesson to all. He demonstrate how the university has failed by mismanaging a department, which was so valued in the society to one where transgressions and unethical behaviour have been reinforced over time. He fails to understand why the system was unable to investigate the first allegation and wonders if Sandusky was above the

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Analysis of The Red Convertible by Charlotte Perkins Gilman Essay

Analysis of The Red Convertible by Charlotte Perkins Gilman - Essay Example Angered, Lyman smashes the convertible. Henry realizes their convertible is run-down. He repairs the convertible and they drive to the river with his brother. The two make a fire by the banks of the river and spends the moment talking. They disagree and fight. Henry jumps in the river to cool off. He drowns and Lamartine fail to rescue him. Lamartine starts the car and plunges it into the river. Symbolism in The Red Convertible The red convertible is an important symbol in the story. The brothers bought the convertible and used it to tour different places. The narrator expresses that they enjoyed each other’s company as they drove to different places together. This is a representation of the normalcy of life before the effects of war. Henry goes to war, and he separates with his brother. Lamartine takes the car apart to demonstrate their separation. After three years away from home, Henry comes back home a different man. Lamartine does not like how Henry comes home withdrawn a nd disinterested in the things they enjoyed before the war. He laments to see how his brother is not returning back to his old self. Out of this devastation, he bangs up the convertible. This symbolizes the torn relationship between the brothers (Erdrich 464). Henry confronts the brother after noticing the state of the convertible. This is indicative of the reality that war veterans face after serving in the war. They find things different as if in a new life. Henry manages to repair the convertible. This points to the repair of his relationship with his brother as the convertible was one of the things that held the two brothers together before the war. When Henry finishes fixing up the convertible, he asks his brother to drive to the river with him. Lamartine thinks that things will go back to normal. His hopes end shortly when Henry jumps into the river and drowns. After he is unable to save his brother, he sends the car plunging into the river so that to give it to his brother. T he demise points to the destructive effects that war has on veterans. It destroys the veterans and their relationships with others. After Henry returns from the war, he does not change his boots and his clothes (Erdrich 464). This is indicative of the permanent memories that veterans carry from the war. These include the horrors and scars they incur in the war. He refuses to change into the clothes he wore before going to war. This expresses difficulty that war veterans experience in resuming their normal lives. Bonita takes a photograph of her two brothers before they drive off to the river. In the photograph, the two look different. Lamartine’s face that comes out as being round, big and right out the sun is the representation of a person who has not been to war. Henry’s face is wrinkled, drawn back and has shadows (Erdrich 465). This represents the state of the soul of a person who has been to war. Henry does not like watching the color television. He becomes violen t to his brother over it. The color from the color television makes him re-experience the horrors he witnessed in the war. This is a common symptom with war veterans. Themes in The Red Convertible Change Change is most prominent in the story. Henry and Lamartine start as good friends who trust each other and enjoy each other’s company. They buy the red convertible together and gets away on a summer vacation. Their adventures in the red convertible express their innocence and freedom in life. They appreciate one another and are close. Henry slept

Saturday, July 27, 2019

The supply of goods act Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

The supply of goods act - Essay Example The Sale and Supply of Goods Act and The Supply of Goods and Services Act both play prominent role is the initial part of this presentation. The Supply of Goods Act was used to shape the premise and establish the fact that a transaction had in fact transpired and on the basis of the set of circumstances which accompanied this transaction, the new for the incorporation of the Supply of Goods and services Act of 1982 became necessary in pointing out a possible resolution... The Supplier of a service acting in the course of business in England, Wales and Northern Ireland to carry out a service with reasonable care and skill and, unless agreed to the contrary, within a reasonable time and make no more than a reasonable charge. Albeit in the case of our presentation example, the item was newly purchased, so it is safe to assume that it was still under warranty, therefore no charges were incurred, on behalf of the purchaser. All other terms previously mentioned apply, unless they have been excluded and there are no strict limits on the circumstances in which an exclusion or variation will be effective. If the supplier can not carry out the work with reasonable care and skill the law treats this matter as a breach of contract and the consumer can seek redress. It is on the points of reasonable care and skill, which the consumer bases the principle cause in this instance for seeking redress. ... It emphatically states that a tradesman or professional has a 'duty of care' towards all property. As we will find in the presentation, the common phrase 'duty of care', hinges on the crux of the issue of which we are confronted. This principle has far reaching scope and breadth, because it requires one to address matters which might happen or should be foreseen to happen if the proper or industry standard procedures are not adhered too by the professional technician. The 'duty of care' also evolves around the skill and care which a responsible person must consider while performing a task which is considered to be important, and to which their dependability and skill has been entrusted. In the absence of this duty of care, there is a definite case of negligence. This presentation also focuses its attention on Employment Law, as it relates to what appears to be a summary dismissal. It points out that even though an employer might feel there is justifiable cause to dismiss an employee, one must never forget that there is a statutory process on how this must be carried out. Whenever the proscribed steps are ignored, the employer leaves his company vulnerable to an assessment, and possibly, even sanctions. Additionally, not only is the process a legal necessity, the language used by the employer in addressing the issue to the employee is also critical to the validity and fairness of the process. In this particular instance with Jim and Asif, the harassment act, surfaces to compound the problem for the company. 3

Friday, July 26, 2019

Essay on Germinal by Emile Zola Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

On Germinal by Emile Zola - Essay Example It is for this reason that Germinal is valuable in order to understand the social and cultural values of French society of that period but also to make significant assumptions regarding the protest against the capital as it was formulated the particular period. These assumptions do not have just historical value but they can be used in order to understand modern social structures and forms of protest against the capital as this protest is being developed throughout the world. It should be noticed that in order to write Germinal, Zola has studied carefully all aspects of coal mining industry. In this context, it is mentioned by Ellis, referring to Zola, (Introduction, 2nd and 3rd lines) that ‘For six months he travelled about the coal-mining district in northern France and Belgium, especially the Borinage around Mons, note-book in hand’. It is for this reason that Germinal represents with accuracy all aspects of life of workers in the particular industry being one of the few novels in which such an issue is developed. The general story developed throughout Germinal could be described as following: Etienne Lantier is a young man that decides to go and live in a mining village. Soon, Etienne begins to work in the mine. However, after a while the daily problems of miners lead Etienne to urge them to protest against the capital (miner’s owners). In the meantime, Etienne – because of his capabilities has become a leader of miners and his view influences them. It is for this reason that influenced by Etienne miners decide for their first time to protest against the capital. Their protest, which has the form of a strike, causes severe financial losses to the miner’s owners and their reactions are characterized by violence and brutality. The story of the novel is ‘enriched’ by the extended reference to the daily life of a particular family of the village, the Maheu family. Etienne, who felt

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Education Can Have Profound Affects On Students Identity Essay

Education Can Have Profound Affects On Students Identity - Essay Example This can be simply assessed by the negative or pessimistic behavior that those students might have about life or other people. They might develop negative or pessimistic attitudes even about God or they might come up with deep feelings of angst, fear and guilt or an insane preoccupation in relation to sin. So it is obvious that any worldview shapes the actions and guides the behaviors of its beholder. What is learned in school will eventually surface in life or in the identity of the students. In this line of thought, school administrators and teachers should be extremely careful on the contents and ways of managing any learning institution. It is also necessary to find solutions in the direction of implementing change and transformation in the inner circles of faculty and staff. One specific educational issue that it's being address lately with due emphasis is the achievement gap among different groups of students according to economic, political and social backgrounds. In the United States this educational issue has taken a radical turn after President George W. Bush and his Administration passed as law the "No Child Left Behind Act 2001". This new law is aimed at improving the performance of all students in the United States and it firmly stresses that it is necessary to ensure that no student gets trapped in a failing school. Among its new features, the No Child Left Behind Act includes "increased accountability for States, school districts, and schools; greater choice for parents and students, particularly those attending low-performing schools; more flexibility for States and local educational agencies (LEAs) in the use of Federal education dollars; and a stronger emphasis on reading, especially for our youngest children." (No Children Left Behind, 200 4). On the other hand, The Education Trust was established in 1990 by the American Association for Higher Education, and it aims that all students at all levels of education get a high academic achievement in order to close forever the achievement gaps that separate minority or poverty-stricken students from the most favored class of students. This institution is positively engaged in closing the achievement gap among all the students in the United States at all costs. Craig Jerald, Senior Policy Analyst at the Education Trust, sums up his research on this issue with the significant result that shows that "there are thousands of schools nationwide that have poverty rates and/or minority enrollments in the top third of their respective states and also had top-third scores on one or more state assessments." (Jerald, 2002). Jerald and Kati Haycok, Director of The Education Gap, suggested that a school system won't be judged as successful unless it teaches successfully all kinds of students. They also stated that "despite what many administrators learned in graduate school, newer, more sophisticated research shows that it is not just poverty or family background that determines student achievement. What schools do does matter." (Jerald & Haycok, 2002). Their recommendations are based on a common agenda of five priority points: 1.- The Bully Pulpit: Take responsibility for raising achievement and closing achievement gaps-in word and deed. 2.- Standards: Use standards to reshape instruction. 3.- Curriculum: Provide all students with a rigorous

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 141

Assignment Example en ways in which supply management has an impact on a firm’s sales are associated the following activities that integrate business management process across the supply chain. Customer relationship management, customer service management, demand management, order fulfillment, manufacturing flow management, supplier relationship management, product development and commercialization and management of returns, all of which determine market demand and production capacity of an organization. Support for strategic supply chain management has to come from the top management of an organization because of several reasons. Firstly, strategic processes require decisions from the top management because they relate to the main objectives of an organization. Secondly, strategic supply chain management involves application of various tactics that heave to be authorized by the top management. Lastly, strategic supply chain management incorporates operational decisions that also have to be directed by the top management because they relate to company objectives. Supply chain management position is important in organizational structure for two major reasons. To begin with, supply chain managers ensure that customer services are boosted hence increasing an organization sales. Secondly, supply chain managers ensure that an organization enjoys high profits by ensuring that product supplies are made quickly and using the most cost effective means. Many organizations use a hybrid approach to decision-making authority in their supply management in order to make informed decisions. In this case, the supply management authorities evaluate different alternatives available for organizations and then decide on one that ensures major objectives are attained. Cross functional teams are made up of stake holders with different skills within an organization. Therefore, individual members can contribute different ideas that can be used to enhance the value of products within an organization. In

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS - Assignment Example The perception that the good teacher turnover rate gives is that lessons are conducted accordingly. â€Å"Grade 3 performance in English language recorded a commendable positive growth in 2012 compared to the results in 2011. We are happy teachers have been responsible in their class attendance. We are also hopeful that the district will record improved performances in the next few years,† Albany City School District’s head of teachers union said while referring to the 3% performance growth in 2012 compared to 2011. â€Å"We rejoice that there is an upward trend tax cuts and funding for schools in this district. This is a realization of the fourth consecutive improvement in district education financing in the district budget,† Executive Director of the state’s School Board Association, Tom Kremer noted. School district budget proposals in the category of students with disabilities in Albany City School District helped in recording high numbers of the students registered in schools compared to the percentage (40%) that were not registered as of October 2011. â€Å"That said,† he adds, â€Å"registration of physically challenged students is very high.† Tom Kremer has joined the chorus of stakeholders who believe that districts are focused at catching up with the effects of cuts initiated by the recession of 2008. As is often the situation, several interest groups have also added education funds after negotiations. For example, the governor had proposed a total of $806 million increase that finally ended up in a hike of about $1.1 billion. The budget will to the school districts in Albany were valued at $89 million. The effects of these are enormous; the overall numbers of all students have increased looking at the ‘Student Group Results’ between 2011 and 2012. Helen Brook, a high school student, in one of the schools in Albany City wanted to move to a neighboring school within the region. She was after

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Sustainability Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Sustainability - Essay Example In the article by Koch (2015) for instance, the passive homes are designed to use less energy at act like thermos flasks. Energy is an interesting aspect because everybody uses energy in one form or the other on daily basis. One thing about sustainability that makes sense is that new and innovative ways of doing things are shaping the sustainability agenda. For example, in the article by Phansey (2014), the author shows how 3D printing has shaped manufacturing from its traditional form to additive manufacturing. Everybody appreciates that in order to lead a sustainable life, there is need to change the traditional way of doing things and adopt new strategies. However, I do not understand the issue of standards as they apply to sustainability. For example, in the article by Koch (2015), the Passive House Institute U.S. (PHIUS) sets the standards relating to passive houses. How such standards are developed and regulated is not clear to me. I would like to know more about recyclable materials. In particular, am interesting in knowing the various recyclable objects and materials around us and how to best use them. For example in the article by Phansey (2014), the author shows how thermoplastics such as polylactic acid (PLA) can be recycled and used in 3D printing. Knowing more about such materials will be beneficial in contributing to the sustainability efforts. I believe that since we live in an era when resources are scarce, sustainability should be a tenet of every society around the world. This will make the world a better place. Koch, W. (2015). Thermos-Like Passive Homes Aggressively Save Energy.  National Geographic. Retrieved from

Monday, July 22, 2019

Technical Writting Essay Example for Free

Technical Writting Essay Company Introduction Texans r Us is in search of a Microsoft trainer to train the staff in Microsoft Office Programs. This Request for Proposal (RFP) will layout the company background and scope of work and will describe the project. If your agency would like to be considered for this project submits a written proposal that concentrates on the points of this RFP no later than Feb 18, 2013. The goal of this project is to fully train the staff of Texans r Us in Microsoft Office Programs. Upon completion of the training each staff member will be proficient in Word, Excel, PowerPoint and Outlook. Project Introduction The goal of the project is to have the entire staff of Texans r Us trained in Microsoft Office programs. Texans r Us consist of four to five employees per location with five locations. The timeframe for this project is as follows: * October 18: Distribute RFP to various agencies * October 22: Deadline for agencies to submit proposals. * October 25: Texans r Us will be available for agency inquiry. * November 8: Contact agencies that will be considered as well as agencies that will not be considered * November 15 – 19: Agencies will be presented to team members * November 22: Contact agency chosen and draw up contract. *November 29: Start date for new agency and meeting with team members. The budget for 2013 training will be prearranged by Texans r Us when agency is elected. The range for the budget is $20,000 $30,000. Administrative information The desired qualifications for the selected agency: * Microsoft Certified Professionals. * Client references. * Excellent writing and verbal skills. The required format for submitting proposals are to include a title page, letter of transmittal, executive summary table of contents and list of visuals. There should also be an introduction and a clear and concise plan for executing the project All proposals submitted will become the sole property of Texans r Us and will not be shared with second or third party clients. If there are any further questions please contact Eli Mata at 555-555-5555.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

The business strategy of marks and spencer

The business strategy of marks and spencer Marks Spencer (MS) is one of the leading retailers in the United Kingdom (UK). The high quality services are being provided to the customers in the areas of clothing, food and home products. Based on reliable statistical data, the number of customers visiting MS stores every week approaching the figure of 21 million. From all over the world, 2,000 suppliers take the responsibility of outstanding quality products to satisfy the customers. The key factors behind the business such as service, quality, value, trust and innovation are equally important since the beginning of MS 125 years ago till date [8]. Business is growing in 41 different countries other than UK by following the well-defined rules and regulations regarding customer care, product quality, innovation and trust. More than 76,000 people work in UK and overseas for MS. To become the worlds most sustainable major retailer is the ultimate goal of MS. For the achievement of this goal, Plan A was launched in January 2007 consisting of 100 commitments to attain in 5 years, but Plan A has extended to 180 commitments to reach by 2015 [9]. The Plan A consists of five pillars to help the MS customers to lead healthier lifestyles. To combat climate change, reduce waste, use sustainable raw material and trade ethically are the four pillars upon which Plan A stands. All the 180 commitments are under the five pillars of Plan A. MS is trying best to work through Plan A by involving customers and suppliers to achieve the desired results [8]. The first section presents the analysis of external environment of organization. Internal environment and identification is the main focus in second section and third section deals with the impact of external environment on the strategic direction of the organization. Identification of the major issues and challenges facing MS is key discussion in last section, and there is conclusion after that to summarize all the sections. Political, economic, social and technical (PEST) are the four most important factors to analyze the external environment of MS. The restrictions or limitations applied by the government in any country are covered under political aspects (import/export duties). But economic aspects indicate the strength and growth of organization based on stock market share value. Social aspects reflect the common people interest in the society and technical issues point to the involvement and utilization of modern emerging technology to advertise and enhance the organizations business. This external environment with four major factors plays a significant role in determining the organizations business strategy to achieve the optimal results. Q.1: Analysis of the organizations external environment. Strategic Analysis of Business Environment External and internal environment influence the organizational operations, therefore strategic direction of business depends on both environments. Strategic analysis helps identifying the environmental factors that can significantly affect the business. On the other hand, environmental analysis indicates the activities both inside and outside the organization. For appropriate business strategy to reflect the organizational environment, environmental analysis must be taken into account. The following discussion considers external and internal organizational environment in detail [6]. 1.1 External Environment External environment consists of conditions and forces such as (political, economical, social and technological) that are beyond the control and affect the organizations strategic options. External environment defines the competitive situation of organization and potentially have both positive and negative impact on business. The classical PEST analysis identifies four major categories of external factors that significantly affect organizations capability to survive and grow. Based on operating region, external environment is divided into three interactive segments having remote, industrial and operating environments. However, changes in the external environment also create new opportunities [1]. Different external factors have different influences which need to be discussed separately for clear understanding. Some influences inter-linked with each other create a bit of complexity. For instance, information technology completely changed the nature of work, customer behavior and life-style as well. External environmental study helps to decide the business strategy accordingly to gain the competitive advantage. Based on PEST analysis, four major external factors are going to discuss in detail [2]. Remote Environment Operating Environment Industrial Environment 1.2 Political Environment Business growth and investors interest both are strictly relevant to the political stability in a country. The government trade policy is another important factor that affects organizations business. Organization operates in an administrative and legal framework provided by the political government. The restrictive environment affects all aspects of organization. The legal and administrative framework cover lot of factors including pricing regulation, tax rates and incentives, mandatory employee benefits, wage legislation, trade regulations and tariffs, industrial safety regulations and product labeling requirements. Permissive administrative/legal context favors organizations business, employees and consumers. The development pace of organization depends on specific laws and regulations to work with. Political activities also affect suppliers, customers and competitors [2]. 1.3 Economic Environment To discuss the effect of economy on organizations business, there is a definite need to consider the crucial macro-economic trends. In this regard, the factors that influence business are taxation, interest rates, inflation, disposable income, unemployment, GNP trends, general demand, government spending, money supply, business cycle stage (e.g. prosperity, recession and recovery), economic growth rate and tendency to spend at national and international levels [1]. 1.4 Social Environment In social environment changes in values, attitudes, beliefs, opinions, different life styles and other trends are taken into consideration. Successful business strategy must have the ability to target different demographics, class structure in the society, various cultures and ethnic conditions of individuals. As a consequence of changing marketplace concepts, customers are compromising the quality over price. Fashionable clothing demand has increased to great extent. The price sensitivity of majority of customers left MS at less competitive position [1]. POLITICAL ORGANIZATION SOCIAL TECHNOLOGICAL ECONOMIC 1.5 Technological Environment Rapid change in technology greatly influences the market conditions and existing trends as well. Electronic media is playing very important role in introducing new fashions in the society. Therefore, organization needs to consider all such factors relevant to modern technology. Utilization of modern technology set the new standards regarding services and product quality. In the technological environment business is affected in terms of investment and consistent application of technology to compete in the market [2]. Q.2: Analysiss of the organizations internal environment and identification. Analysis of Internal Environment and Identification SWOT analysis may be used to measure the degree of fit between strategies and environment. Based on this analysis, strengths and opportunities are used for the profit of business and protect organization against weaknesses and threats. There is no great deal of thought in the utilization of SWOT analysis due to simple nature so the results are not very reliable. This analysis has no ability to cope very well with some of the complicated aspects of modern strategic theory. In the current situation simple analysis of internal environment of MS is concerned, thats why reasonable results may be achieved based on SWOT analysis [5]. 2.1 Strengths All internal and external aspects that give strength to the organization are included in the strong points. The strength indicates the current market position of business in terms of customers, competitors and internal resources. Strength is a resource advantage relative to competitors and the needs of the markets a firm serves or expects to serve. The distinct advantage that helps the organization to achieve the comparative advantage in the market. The origin of strength is the resources and competencies available in the organization [5]. Excellent and quality products give the strength to MS in terms of customers and competitors. Based on better treatment and good salary, the employees are in excellent relationship with MS. Large number of MS stores in the UK and overseas represent the strong infrastructure. The financial strength is obvious due to the large market share. MS is one of the major retailers in the UK, profitable and mature as well [4]. 2.2 Weaknesses In spite of good strength in industry, there are weak areas as well that require an improvement. MS products are more expansive than other competitors on the high street but justifiable based on excellent quality. The main focus is on the customers in between 35-44 years old, neglecting the younger and children. Because of expansion program to Europe, USA and other countries, MS lost focus on local market. There is no business strategy to capture the potential available in the younger generation market .Most of the times no special offers are available to the customers in the form of sales. Internally, customer services need to be improved including updating the use of technology to manage the merchandise in the store [4]. 2.3 Opportunities The most important factor in the business growth is to avail the new opportunities in the market. To grasp the potential available in the market, there is a definite need to arrange the flexible business strategy that may change according to the trends. Introduce the wider range of colour clothes, variety and different types of collections to target the majority of customers .By utilising suitable effective strategy such as younger more contemporary models to attract the younger generation. Superior resources and capabilities based on modern technology is a key factor to attain the competitors advantage level. There is a need to improve the food stores for successful MS food business [4]. 2.4 Threats In the presence of intense competition between different organizations in the industry, threat is ever present force. To avoid the danger of threat the organization always tries to improve the performance in terms of customer services, quality product and lower cost. Business extension to overseas has proven less successful for M&S; there is a need to target the local market. Strong competitors are targeting the youth market; therefore there is a danger that MS could lose this market [5]. Organizations Internal Factors Opportunities Threats Weaknesses Strengths External Factors Q.3: Identification of the major issues and challenges facing the marks Spencer. Challenges and Issues Facing Marks Spencer MS is one of the biggest retailers in the UK providing diverse nature services to the customers including clothes, food and home products. They always try their best to emphasize Quality at affordable prices, but this is not always the case. They are losing the trend to capture the younger market and other retailers are taking the advantage of this weak point. To grasp the potential of this area is the big challenge MS facing. The goods prices are going up and to provide the cheaper product, they have to import the stuff which decreased the image of MS as British Goods seller [8]. The customers trends were changing towards natural and environmentally friendly products so, MS launched plan A consisting of 180 commitments to overcome the challenges. Many problems are related to changing climate conditions. To combat the climate change is the major challenge that MS facing. Reduce the waste going into landfill is also the big issue for MS to deal with. The plan A is launched by considering the fact that great challenges exist and management needs to deal with customers and suppliers to achieve the targets. To attain the carbon neutral level is an important commitment that is trying to be achieved by efficient utilization of fuel. For example, huge vehicles are being used for transportation. Energy saving is also the important part of plan A [8]. There are a considerable number of clothes going to landfill in the form of waste. Instead of wasting, these cloths may be provided to the non-profit organizations who are working for the needy people of society. The reduction of waste is significant factor in plan A. MS is trying their best to improve the lives of people in the supply chain. To help the customers and employees live the healthier life-style through plan A [9]. Q.4: External environment and the impact on the strategic direction of the organization. Impact of External Environment on Strategic Direction The strategic direction refers to the action plan that leads to the achievement of ultimate goals of organizations strategy. The strategic direction of MS is based on the idea to become the worlds most sustainable retailer by 2015. In spite of the fact that there is no set bench mark exit to compare the worlds most sustainable retailer, this plan is admirable to provide so much services and containing large number of commitments. To achieve this target, the business development department launched plan A based on five pillars. The business is not limited to the physical boundaries of organization. What happens outside does affect the strategic direction and the organization has to act or react accordingly to cope with the situation [2]. The external forces such as political, economical, social and technological that affect the strategic direction of organizations business is beyond the control. Therefore, sometimes organization is bound to change the strategic direction of business to cope with the situation and to achieve the ultimate goal [1]. The political environment contains administrative and legal factors which affect the strategic direction due to some administrative and legal restrictions. The soft conditions support the business to reach the final destination (desired level). But hard conditions bound the organization to change the business strategy to achieve the desired result. The organization has to work within the framework provided by the political government in a country. The change in political setup may also influence the strategic direction because organization needs to follow new legal and administrative instructions by the new government [2]. In the social environment public trends play a very important role in the strategic direction of organization. Change in values, beliefs, attitudes, opinions and lifestyles influence the organization to change the business strategy to fulfill the demands of customers in a changing atmosphere. The cultural, demographic and religious tendencies create new opportunities in the market for business growth [3]. The major change in technology set the new standard to compete in the market and this scenario totally change the strategic direction of Organization to stay in the market and to achieve the business objectives. Strengths may be replaced by weaknesses and competencies can become rigidities. Technological change opens new opportunities to grow the business by exploiting new market potential and unmet demands. The cost, rate of change and innovation are the factors related to materials and machines used for manufacturing goods and services [6]. The existence of strong competitors is an ever present threat to the organization, change in the strategic direction and business plan may affect the organization to reconsider the business strategy to save the customers and business. Sometimes organizations has to introduce the new better business plan to capture the potential in the market. For example, MS gave second version of plan A by adding new commitments to achieve the level of worlds most sustainable retailer by 2015 [8]. The change in strategic direction of an organization is not an easy task as so many associated factors need to change. For instance, reconfiguration of existing resources and capabilities take place by changing the strategy. This action is taken only when no other option is available. Q.5: What should the organization do to achieve or maintain competitive advantage in its industries? . Competitive Advantage Competitive advantage refers to the state of organization when profit level exceeds the average of its industry. To achieve the status of competitive advantage is the ultimate goal of business strategy. Cost advantage and differentiation advantage are the two basic forms of competitive advantage. These two conditions are necessary for the existence of competitive advantage. One of them is to deliver the same benefits as competitors but at minimum cost (cost advantage) and the other one is to provide the competing product with more benefits (differentiation cost). The position of organization in industry as a leader is identified based on cost or differentiation [7]. 5.1 Competitive Advantage Model The block diagram describes the resource-based concept of competitive advantage by combining the resources and capabilities to provide the superior value creation [6]. Capabilities Distinctive Competencies Cost Advantage Or Differentiation Advantage Value Creation Resources 5.2 Resources and Capabilities Superior resources and capabilities are essential factors to develop the competitive advantage. In the absence of these factors competitors introduce better product with less price and advantage disappears immediately. Basically, resources indicate the organization-specific assets that are utilized to develop cost or differentiation advantage. The examples of such resources include installed customer base, reputation of company, brand equity, proprietary know-how, patents and trademarks. How efficiently the organization utilizes its resources to achieve the competitive advantage is measured in terms of capabilities. For example, bringing the product into the market quicker than competitors represents capabilities. The combination of resources and capabilities result in distinctive competencies which in turn activate efficiency, quality, innovation and customer awareness. Such attributes act as a catalyst to attain the status of cost or differentiation advantage [7]. 5.3 Achievement of Competitive Advantage Level Learn Customer Demands To achieve or maintain the competitive advantage in its industry, the organization should follow some necessary points as a routine matter in favor of customers and the business plan as well. Analysis of Competition Product Differentiation with Target Market Analysis Modern Techniques Economic Moat Creation Business Information Resources 5.3.1 Learn Customer Demands Customers are the most important entity in the business circle. To understand the demands of customers is a significant factor towards competitors advantage. Organization must offer good quality product at minimum price to attract the customers and capture the market [6]. 5.3.2 Analysis of Competition Another important step to achieve the competitors advantage level is fair analysis of competition. For example, who are the major competitors in the industry and what type of different products are they offering. The quality and price of similar goods need to be considered in the analysis. The strength of major competitors in the industry is taken into account [6]. 5.3.3 Product Differentiation with Modern Techniques Provide good quality products with low cost by utilizing modern fabrication techniques play very important role to maintain competitors advantage level. Modern technology, superior resources and capabilities with better management are the key factors to sustain the position of competitors advantage [7]. 5.3.4 Target Market Analysis The term target market refers to the group of customers and communities at which the organization aims its services and products. Distinction between target markets based on social, demographic and common characteristics make the best target for the organization to focus [6]. 5.3.5 Economic Moat Creation On the basis of advantage regarding barriers to enter into the market, discourage the competitors from challenging your market share. In some situations the capability of well established company to manipulate barriers to enter and compete in the market acts as an effective method against new competition. To preserve the profit potential and make the business secure for upcoming future is also included in the process to create economic moat. 5.3.6 Business information resources Information technology is playing a significant role in every field, supplying plenty of relevant information available to business resources. The business information resources may be used to set the suitable business strategy that is superior as compared to the competitors. Business information companies provide such services to become advantage competitors [7]. Summary MS is one of the biggest retailers in the UK who has the aim to achieve the position of worlds most sustainable retailer by 2015 based on the completion of 180 commitments. All commitments revolve around five pillars of plan A. Climate change, waste, natural resources, fair partnership and health and wellbeing are the five pillars on which the plan A stands. The organizations business is affected by internal and external factors. Strengths and weaknesses are the main internal factors that are under the control of management. But external factors such as political, economical, social and technological are beyond the control of the organization. The external factors put on the different restrictions and strategic direction of business depends on such forces. Threats and opportunities are the other two factors which may determine the business strategy. Superior resources and capabilities are utilized to attain the level of competitor advantage. Some necessary actions to maintain the pos ition of competitor advantage such as learn the customer demands, competition analysis, modern technology utilization and product differentiation are names of a few. To meet 180 commitments by the end of 2015 is the biggest challenge. Other major challenges are the efficient utilization of resources to work on plan A for the achievement of main objectives relevant to the five pillars. CONCLUSION MS launched Plan A in 2007 because they were facing tough competition from their rivals. MS was lacking behind in many sectors of the retail market, so they needed a comprehensive plan to become the worlds most sustainable retailer. In order to achieve all this, MS called this Plan, Plan A because they believe its now the only way to do the business and there is no Plan B. By adopting the Plan A MS has fought back really well and their sales are on the rise which resulted in increased market shares and they are successfully becoming one of the worlds most sustainable major retailers.

Disciplines In Health Promotion Health And Social Care Essay

Disciplines In Health Promotion Health And Social Care Essay In the past years there has been an increasing expectation of new strategies and ideas concerning Public Health and Health Promotion with regards to effectiveness, efficiency and the importance of a wide range of various disciplines contributing to enhance the uses of resources and the practice of health promotion (Macdonald and Bunton 2004). This assignment will explore with critical reflections and throw more light on the importance of the various disciplines such as psychology, sociology, economics and ethics that contribute to improve the practice of health promotion. Discussions will include the relevance of economics, sociology and ethics to the practice of health promotion and ways in which these can contribute to understanding and evaluating health promotion. Finally it is expected that this assignment will highlight the problems and challenges identified, address them and make recommendations for professional practice. CONCEPT OF HEALTH The most acceptable known definition of health, states that health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (WHO 1946). However, although this definition has been accepted widely as a holistic and positive interpretation of health, it has been criticised for not including the spiritual and emotional aspects of health (Ewles and Simnett 2003 cited in Bennett et al 2009 p. 48). The question is what really informs the understanding of health and ill health considering the lay people and the practitioner is that, the definition of health is entirely personal to the individual and his/her life styles. This has become necessary that healthcare professional should understand that the interpretation of health is highly understood differently from one person to the other with regards to issues militating against them from one point of time such as self-esteem, social support, individual control and social status (Laverack 2007), so that in an attempt to address these issues one should be ready to consider to embrace and undertake interventions of health promotions to achieve realistic goals. Blaxter (1990) identified five main concepts of health as follows, health as a physical fitness, health as social relationships, health as a function, health as psychosocial well-being, that prevails with young men of higher socioeconomic groups and lastly, health as not ill that is the absence of symptoms or medical effort widely used by all group. The term health promotion describes a multidimensional approach to encouraging health related lifestyle changes among individuals and communities (Laverack 2007). Health promotion aims to allow people to increase their control over their health and the factors that affect it, with the ultimate aim of enhancing health and its determinants (WHO 1986, 2005). Naidoo and Wills (2000) described three levels of health education as follows, Primary prevention for example immunisation, Secondary prevention for example screening. Then Tertiary prevention which aims to limit complications associated with irreversible conditions, for example cardiac rehabilitation. However, an individuals approach to health promotion will be influenced by their own health beliefs and that of the profession they represent. Ewles and Simnett (2003) outlined a framework of five approaches that demonstrate a range of values and beliefs that are commonly held. A value is an idea or concept that is regarded as worthy, desirable or useful (Moore 2001). And according to Fishbein (1976), a belief is a probability judgement that links some object or concept to some attribute The five approaches are; Medical approach to prevent disease, Behaviour change approach that is persuasive education, Educational approach that provides patients right to make an informed choice, Empowerment approach, this is patient-centred approach that helps patients to identify their own learning needs and, facilitated by a health educator, gain the knowledge and skills they require to make decisions about their health needs and the Social change approach this does not focus on the individual but on society as a whole (Ewles and Simnett 2003). Similarly health promotion interventions can be achieve by adopting the downstream approaches to tackle health behaviours that give rise to problems and upstream approaches to tackle the causes of such behaviours such as alcohol and smoking problem that leads to social exclusion and poverty. To alleviate this problem taxes should be imposed on such items and local employment programmes set up at the upstream to tackle the cause. Health info rmation and behaviour programmes should be provided to solve this problem at the downstream (Mckinlay 1979). THE DISCIPLINES For health promotion to be effective and efficient, it is important to explore a variety of disciplines as well as the use of an available resources and the appropriate evidence base practice (Macdonald and Bunton 2004). The question is which discipline ideas, concepts or theories inform us in promoting health? But generally it has been said that psychology has played an important role in formulating strategies (Bennett and Murphy 1997; Bennett et al. 1995), identifying aims and objectives and suggesting effective approaches for health promotion (Bunton et al. 1991; Bennett and Murphy 1997). Psychology therefore is concerned with the scientific study of the processes of the mind and behaviour and how human and other animals relate to one another with the environment (Colman 1988). It has been found that psychological theories by using communication model of behavioural change has proved successful and reported of positive outcomes for example, according to Boots and Midford (1999), suggested that females were used in campaigning in mass media activities to raised awareness of drivers to stop drinking when driving in Australia. Similarly Petty and Cacioppo (1986) by the use of Elaboration Likelihood Model explained how pre-existing beliefs and interest of an individual as well as the message content (how it is package) has a positive impact in changing behaviour that is the likelihood of a known HIV positive person who is involve in a campaign of promoting National AIDS awareness programmes can effect an increase knowledge, less risky attitudes and a safer behaviour chang e than somebody without the disease (Scollay et al. 1992). It has also been found that the use of the health belief model has given an in-depth understanding about low rates of compliance to screening and prevention recommendations. This type consist of five models, more common are the approaches that increase the barriers to unhealthy behaviours that is by use of increasing taxation in tobacco or alcohol that serves as an effective deterrent with young adults who are more affected by price changes than older adults (Lewit et al. 1981). But Brownson et al. (1995) also affirmed that by imposing restrictions on such items on alcohol without licencing, renders it ineffective that poses political issues and controversy. Also through Social learning theory (SLT), that states behaviour is the product of a relationship between perception and environmental events (Bandura 1997). It has been realised that, behaviours are influenced by two sets of expectancies, the first being the action-outcome that explains the fact that if an individual believes th at a particular action will cause disastrous health problems like smoking causes cancer then the individual sees the outcome as a value. The second being the self-efficacy expectancy, that is if the individual realises that giving up of smoking will reduce the risk of getting cancer then the person places a high value on the behavioural change. These two expectancy beliefs have been found to be effective in helping to resist peer pressure to smoke or the use of drugs (Stacy et al. 1992) and engaging in safer sex practices (OLeary et al. 1992). However it has been argued that behaviour comes as a result of a formal decision making and seems to be habitual and thoughtless (Hunt and Martin 1988). Conversely economics as a discipline has also contributed to health promotion either in a positive or negative way globally. Health economics according to Santerre and Neun (2009) studies the supply and demand of health care resources and the impact of health care resources on a population (p.4). It can also be used to access the impact of tax changes on smoking behaviour, for instance increasing taxes on such item like cigarette would be very effective. Because it will increase the cost of cigarette which will in turn correspond to a reduction in the number of young adult smokers and at the same time reduce the amount of consumption. Similarly the changes in tax do not actually affect the number of adult smokers. On the other hand if taxes are imposed on cigarettes, the disadvantage is that tobacco duty is going to go up which will affect the poor more the rich (Grossman and chaloupka 1997). Economic policies has also threaten the developments of interventions globally for instance, the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) which was hailed as a new frame work for development that would have propelled and directed change in the spheres of hunger, health and human right, equality and education is being threaten by economic problems of soaring commodity prices, government decisions of misdirecting funds and global slowdown to bring it to reality. For example this will affect the UN population fund, whose agency focuses on maternal and reproductive health which is a major public health issue for instance it has been estimated that, in India the number of women dying during childbirth is highest anywhere in the world that is one woman dying every three to six minutes from preventable causes, yet the country spends less than 0.9% of gross domestic product on public health. On the other hand it would cost the world $6bn to stop women dying during childbirth less than the amount s pent in a day and a half on the military. Also sound economic investment could go a long way to bring success in countries across Asia pushing down the poverty levels. At the same time political priorities, if geared towards health-related MDGs will help save women from dying, reduce child mortality rate, combat HIV/Aids, promote gender equality and eradicate extreme poverty and hunger globally (Holmes 2008). Another discipline of importance is sociology which has also played an effective role in promoting health. Sociology enables us to understand the structure and dynamics of society, it attempts to analyse the patterns of human behaviour and individual life changes. It also examines the different forms of social structures like groups, organisations, communities and social categories such as gender, age and race and various social institutions like kinship, political, economic or religious groups that affect human attitudes, actions, values and beliefs as well as opportunities (Thorogood 2004 cited in Macdonald and Bunton 2004). The significance of this has highlighted an understanding into how health and illness affect our everyday life and has also criticised medicine as a tool to support capitalist development and exploitation (Navarro 1974; Doyal and Pennell 1979). According to Illich (1976), medical dominance has done a lot of harm than good for example the practice of biomedicine has created a lot of sicknesses as a result from the risk of surgery, anaesthesia, effects of drugs and immunisations. This has also open ways to examine and to improve ways of different factors of health issues that is beyond the field of medicine and which the medical world does not have an adept opinion, and sociology can offer an insight into how and why these progressions occur. These also include the family structure, housing problems and employment issues as well as policies and suggest ways to address them (McKeown 1979; Kennedy 1983; Townsend and Davidson 1982). The adoption of health promotion strategies has come under scrutiny in a sense that not only does the approach of information-giving is enough to change a person but then the issue of empowerment model that is gaining greater control and making a free choice (Tones 1986 ). For example health promotion campaign in recent times has not been successful to address the issues relating to educational responses to HIV/AID. There has been various criticism in the approach with regards to norms and values that has been associated to targeted groups and more importantly the ideas and values that binds the campaign which were not expressed (Watney 1988a).The issue of impasse facing government-sponsored programmes between agencies have been emphasised, on one hand and need for appropriate information on a vital public health issue on the other as well as a political and social unwillingness to support the profile of sex (Wellings 1988; Watney 1988b). The reasons for this tension is perhaps the s ensitivity of undertaking any public educational activities which addressed forms of sexual relationship that might misinterpreted and could damage the traditional family values (Jessopp and Thorogood 1990). This can be achieved by carefully adopting a skilful decision-making strategy of acknowledging the individual social and political views as well as the structure of the community and their pre-existing values and beliefs. This will influence the ways in which information is perceived and operated on, decision-making and choice (Thorogood 2004 cited in Macdonald and Bunton 2004). Another area that has been criticised is the concept of evidence-base to inform health promotion policy and practice for achieving health outcomes (Bowen and Zwei 2005). Programmes designed to support evidence-base health promotion (EBHP) are being investigated and discussions are on-going to find out which mechanism could be most effective to support the evidence into policy practice and relevance of practice guidelines. Even though resources can be found in large organisations that are responsible for making sure the implementation of policy and supporting EBHP practices and decision making processes (Davies 2005; Speller et al. 2005), there are well documented barriers that include lack of aptness, lack of relevance of research, mutual mistrust and lack of personal contact between researchers, policy-makers and practitioners, poor quality research, political instability, resource limitations and lack of expert opinion to explain evidence. Though many organisations are making sure to develop strategies to alleviate these barriers, there is still limited published research discovering the experiences of practitioners in the interest of evidence-based resources to inform practices. But in seeking to improve the evidence-base for health promotion and public health a multi-dimensional approach is required (Nutbeam 1999; Tang et al. 2003). CONCLUSION This essay to a large extent has given an insight into understanding the concepts, principles and models of health as well as public health and health promotion as being applied in a national and global context. It has also highlighted in a broader perspective understanding as to the way in which psychology has contributed effectively in a more rigorous application of psychological theories within health promotion interventions and evaluation designs (schaalma et al. 1996). And more also as a discipline to a large extent the contribution made in economics to health Promotion in identifying which forms of health promotion are worthwhile and which is not and therefore provided a framework which enables identification of where the benefits of health promotion justify the cost and to what extent. Lastly understanding the relevance of sociology for health promotion which has helped to outline the broad basis of sociological methods, considering the contribution this method has made or mig ht make and the criticism of health promotion, both in its methods and in its goals and objectives. 2,502

Saturday, July 20, 2019

My Philosophy of Education Essays -- Education Educating Teaching Essa

My Philosophy of Education Education is a major component of our society. Each culture has its own traditions on education, and there are many different philosophies on education. There are so many people that are involved in the educational system, and I feel that it is important to express my own philosophy on education. Of course, one purpose of education is to help to develop children emotionally. In the educational setting students learn manners, how to respect their peers and their elders. In fact, I feel that this is one of the more important purposes of the schools. Children learn how to interact with other students, and teachers. Especially in the early years, students are taught to be honest, and to share. While these are lessons that might also be taught at home, it is important to reinforce proper behavior at schools. Similarly, the educational system also teaches basic skills that will be necessary in life. These lessons aren’t always taught in classes or planned in lessons, however, certain things, like time management is taught through school. Students are required to balance their life, with homework, sports practices, clubs, friends and family. This is an important skill that the educational system helps to develop. Clearly another purpose of schools is to teach students different subject areas. The purpose of education is to expand your knowledge, and your world. I believe that the pu...

Friday, July 19, 2019

Creole Men of The Awakening by Kate Chopin Essay -- essays research pa

In Kate Chopin’s novel, The Awakening, the Creole men are as diverse and different as Edna. Kate Chopin’s story centers around a woman, unsatisfied with her life in a man dominated society. The three main male characters resemble typical men of that era. Chopin shows the diversity of each of those three characters- Roberts awakening, and the struggle to do the right thing, Alcee and his carefree and unconcerned attitude towards society's expectations, and Mr. Pontiller, a business man, with little time left for wife and family. In exploring these three men in Kate Chopin’s The Awakening, there are certain aspects of each that are the same. All live in the 1800’s were morale reputation was considered to be the utmost importance to the businessman. Yet, Alcee seems unconcerned with any morale or business responsibility. In exploring the character of Robert, who seems to be at a crossroad in his life, doesn't know weather he should search for his fortune, find a wife, prosper, and be respectable, or do the unthinkable and just follow his heart. But he ends up going to Mexico to work because he knows his love for Edna will always be forbidden. Mr. Pontellier is the typical Creole husband and businessman. â€Å"Leonce is convinced that fulfilling monetary needs excuses the paucity of time he spends with the children, never presuming that some needs cannot be monetarily satisfied: {â€Å"He has his hands full with his brokerage business †¦making a living for his family on the street†(885)} Perhaps because he is aware of his own neglect, Leonce projects his guilt onto Edna, "expecting a flawles mammal performance on her part to remedy his domestic absence.† (Patrsn, Out Of A Convention of Awakening, np) Patterson describes Leonce has having ... ...a tragic loss. Mr Pontieller will remarry as soon as the proper mourning period has passed because he has his two sons, who need a mother, to think about. Meanwhile Leonce’s mother keeps the boys with her so Leonce can conduct business as usual. Alcee truly misses his friend and mourns her loss for a while. Then his attentions are drawn to some other woman, and Edna is forgotten. Robert takes it the hardest. He truly loved Edna and harbors some guilt for her death. He mourns Edna’s loss and doesn't listen to gossip of mental instability as others talk about her. Robert takes a long time to find another love, but eventually, he finds the love of his life, and only thinks, on occasion, of Edna. Eventually, all the men in Edna's lives move on. Weather they continue to think about her or not, the impact she made on their lives is what makes them the men they are now.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Characteristics of Modern Drama

The essence of this paper is to list and discuss characteristics of modern period drama. These characteristics are realism, naturalism and interaction between characters and the readers. They will be discussed along with Henrik Ibsen’s ‘Ghosts’ and Arthur Miller’s ‘Death of a Sales man’. Realism and naturalism are considered to be the cornerstones of modern drama as we know it today. They are the major influencers of the modern drama. Henrik Ibsen is considered to be the founding father of these two movements. It is crucial to note that characters in these two movements represent themselves as normal human beings and this aid to the readers to interact and analyse the play to make their own judgements which is a feature of modern drama. Realism in literature was first developed in France in the mid-nineteenth century. Realist writers sought to narrate their plays from an objective, unbiased perspective that simply and clearly represented the factual elements of the play. They became masters at psychological characterization, detailed descriptions of everyday life in realistic settings, and dialogue that captures the idioms of natural human speech. The realists endeavoured to accurately represent contemporary culture and people from all walks of life. Ghosts capture the issues that concern us in everyday life. They are real issues that concern us in the contemporary world. The fact that they are real and not shielded they led to the play being rejected when it was first produced in1891. What Ibsen was saying was the truth which was took place in the society before 19th Century and was concealed. By revealing issues such as sex, sexual transmitted infections, incest, and infidelity he hurt the society since such issues were not openly discussed prior the 19th Century. The reason why ‘Ghosts’ was rejected is that it dramatise those secret issues. â€Å"Daily Telegraph leader is perhaps the most damning, describing the play as: ‘an open drain; a loathsome sore unbandaged; a dirt act done publicly; a lazar house with all its doors and windows open’. Ibsen, (2002: xxvi). In reality matters such as promiscuity does happen. Captain Alving represents this issue and in turn it is concealed at first because the only time Mrs Alving mentions it is in Act 2 after Osvald made sexual advances to Regina at the end of Act 1. Pastor Manders not to believe it but she tells her that she confirmed it from Johanna, who is Regina’s mother. And also sexual transmitted does affect children. So it was of no help to conceal reality because at the end of everything it will bounce back ith its consequences having to be addressed. At the end Mrs Alving had no choice but to tell the truth though it is late at Osvald’s side because his syphilitic condition its already in the advanced stage for being cured. In ‘Death of a Sales man’ we see Willy Loman concealing the reality that he is no longer doing well in travelling sales. He claims that he is doing exceptionally well though he is in the habit of borrowing money from Charlie pretending it to be his weekly wages. He also claims to be well liked yet he is fired shamelessly in his job. He taints Biff and Happy by saying that being well liked is the key to success yet he is not successful himself. Now we can see how realism present itself in these two plays. On the other hand naturalism is a movement in theatre, film, and literature that seeks to replicate a believable everyday reality, as opposed to such movements as Romanticism or Surrealism, in which subjects may receive highly symbolic, idealistic, or even supernatural treatment. Naturalistic writers were influenced by the evolution theory of Charles Darwin. They believed that one's heredity and social environment decide one's character. Whereas realism seeks only to describe subjects as they really are, naturalism also attempts to determine â€Å"scientifically† the underlying forces (i. e. the environment or heredity) influencing these subjects' actions. They are both opposed to romanticism, in which subjects may receive highly symbolic, idealistic, or even supernatural treatment. Naturalistic works often include uncouth or sordid subject matter. For example, Emile Zola's works had frankness about sexuality along with a pervasive pessimism. Naturalistic works exposed the dark harshness of life, including poverty, racism, prejudice, disease, prostitution, filth, etc. They were often very pessimistic and frequently criticized for being too blunt. Naturalism applies to ‘Ghosts’ and ‘Death of a Salesman in the sense that it sees human fate as the result of the environment they find themselves in. As Sigmund Freud said ‘man‘s basic instincts are sexuality and extent that he was a highly promiscuous man who ended up impregnating her maid. Looking at Charles Darwin also we find that the environment is the primary cause of everything that man does therefore man has no control over his actions. This will backup Captain Alving for being promiscuous. By making sexual advances to Regina, Osvald is also the victim of the environment and heredity. Furthermore in ‘Death of a Sales man’ the reason why Willy Loman find himself in the situation he is in it is because of the environment. He wants to conquer new territories thus he refers to himself a New England man. He also says if one is well liked he will never want yet he is an unknown character. The fact that he commits suicide at the end of the play is the causality of the environment. The environment he occupied could not let him to achieve the values by which lives. According to naturalists he has no control all over things that happen in his life. Moreover the interaction between the readers and the characters is a characteristic of modern period drama. It is captured by the fact that these two plays are realistic. The characters in ‘Ghosts’ and ‘Death of a Salesman’ represents themselves as normal human beings. The issues that they capture are known and their consequences to the characters are mirroring what is happening in the society at large. The readers feel what the characters feel and also sympathize with them as in the real life. In ‘Ghosts’ the readers feel pity for Osvald for having acquired syphilis from his father. This situation also reminds us of the babies who are born HIV positive today. It is indeed a sad situation for an individual to find themselves in. Also in ‘Death of a Sales man’ as readers we wish Willy Loman could think otherwise in order for him to escape the fate he is in. We wish he could realise that the frontier was reached by those who arrived there first. And that he could teach his sons that being well liked and personally attractive has nothing to do with success at all. This is never achievable because the play was written to portray the reality of natural fate such as death. As human beings we do not have a control over these things. In conclusion realism and naturalism and the interaction between the readers an the characters are the characteristics in modern period drama. The plays portrays the real issues of life and also the natural part of life which human beings have no control over. Also we find that the readers are able to interact with the characters because what is going on in the play is the same as what is going on in life. REFERENCESIbsen. H, (2002), Ghosts, London, Nick Hern Books. Miller. A, (2000), Death of a Salesman, Great Britian, Penguin Group. e. Notes. com,Realism Introduction,(2010), http://www. enotes. com/realism/, retrieved 21-04-2010UNIVERSITY OF BOTSWANA FACULTY OF HUMANITIES DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH SHALANI GOBIFELWANG 200602865MR SEDA MODERN ENGLISH DRAMA ENG 482 21-04-2010Using any two plays that you have studied in this course list and analyse any three characteristics, features or conventions of drama of the modern period.

Impression Formation Study

Abstract This report is based on impression dustation. A psychoanalyze was conducted to capture if the order of entropy presented about a sibylline someone to a role player has an found on their impression net set-back impression of that individual.Participants from London metropolitan University (80 role players) were put into two assemblages, in which they were asked to cast their impression of a vatical person with a inclining of tending(p) over adjectives ( incontrovertible and proscribe), fore close toborn they ar given actors line that guide this theoretic person, the describing language were identical, just presented in divers(prenominal) orders, depending on which one (of the two) conventions the histrion was placed in. It was effectuate that a to a greater extent optimistic opinion was described for the alleged(a) person in which the participants heard affirmative to disallow adjectives comp ard to that of the negative to unequivocal adje ctives.Intro A topic that has been explored in psychology is how batch come up with first impressions, and what education is important to support form impressions. The s features asked here was simply how do stack form impressions of theirs based on control information. The founder of query into this field was Asch (1946), who was sick about the principles behind forming impressions. Asch (1946) conducted a study where, he had two multitudes, in which both were given lists of speech in distinct orders according to which group the participants were assigned to.Asch found that the group given the confident(p) words followed by the negative words real a much positive first impression than the group who take ond the words negative words then given the positive words. He concluded that the first words are the words that are most important and are the traits that are remembered this is c aloneed the primacy effect. only other enquiry shows that the primacy effect isnt alw ays the one remembered, and the most recent ( recency effect) adjectives may be the adjectives that model the participant.This may happen in situations where the participant has been given too much information or they are tired and insufficiency motivation and if these factors are not present, the to a greater extent common effect is the primacy effect. It was concluded that the primacy effect is the main cyclorama to how people form impressions and it was stated that the first adjectives use are the most important and choose a lot more(prenominal) influences then the later adjectives. The aim of this sample is to build on the findings of Aschs configural model and this study aims to recur the results achieved by Asch.This study will absorb the same design, two groups under different conditions. The lists of words are as follows, positive negative intelligent, expeditious, impulsive, critical, stubborn, and envious. Negative positive envious, stubborn, critical, impulsiv e, industrious and intelligent. at that place aft(prenominal) the participants were asked to describe the hypothetical person with a set of adjectives (positive and negative, and asked to apply these to the hypothetical person (generous- correspond, sociable-unsociable, reliable-unreliable, polite-rude, pleasant-unpleasant).From these it was worked out whether the impression was more positive or negative. There are different sorts of hypothesis which could throw off been explored. It has been resolved that hypothesis will be directional, cursory hypothesis. The hypothesis of the test is that, Participants who are given traits, positive negative will have a more positive mickle of the hypothetical person. Which fuddleds that the participants given trait negative positive traits will have a more negative view to that hypothetical person. Method ParticipantsThe amount of participants used was a figure of 80 participants, this was split up into two groups of 40, one group whi ch would line up the traits negative positive and the other to receive positive to negative. The participants were students at London metropolitan university, which consisted of an age range 17 to 44 years, Mean = 21. 35, Standard Deviation = 4. 67. There were 56 females and 24 males. The participants were treated in accordance to the ethical principles of the BPS and gave admit and were told they could withdraw at any point.Materials and/or Apparatus The materials used in this experiment included a computer, the size of the quiz was 17 inches, where trait lists were used, and the trait list for the positive negative group goes as follows intelligent, industrious, impulsive, critical, stubborn, and envious. The other group sure the aim same words, just backwards which goes as follows envious, stubborn, critical, impulsive, industrious, and intelligent. The words were viewed on a sinlessness back ground with a typesetters case size on 28 and vitrine type of Calibri.The other apparatus complex included an online questionnaire. Procedure The participants were told they would be shown a screen of words, and were told that after viewing the words they should form an impression of a hypothetical person and will have to do an online questionnaire which according to the hypothesis should help us gain results which will contribute to research towards primacy effect. The participants were shown their respective trait lists, depending on the group they were assigned to. Each word was shown for 3 seconds with an interval of 1. seconds between trait adjectives, after being shown the words the participants were asked to complete an online questionnaire which consisted of 6 questions. To test the hypothesis, we must calculate the mean score and exemplar digression for all participants in both groups. Starting with the positive negative and ending with the negative to positive group. Results The results of the experiments are as follows the group that received t he positive to negative traits, mean second-rate was M=3. 4 and the standard deviation SD= 0. 84.The results for the group which received the trait adjectives from negative to positive had different results, the results are as follows, the mean was M=2. 72 and the standard deviation SD=0. 83 Discussion The hypothesis at the start stated the group which was given the positive negative traits would rear a better and more positive impression, then the group who received the traits in the order of negative positive. This has proven to be the case as the higher the mean number, the more positive the impression create and noted by the participants, through say the questions of the online questionnaire.The results which support the hypothesis support the guess of the primacy effect, which is consistent with and supports Aschs (1946) previous work. However just looking at the results of the experiment without no averages or means, a lucifer of scores stood out, where participants in the positive to negative group create an impression of the hypothetical person, which didnt support the hypothesis, there was alike scores from the negative positive group which didnt support the hypothesis, which means recency effect was something that also took place in this experiment.Future research could include the same experimental design, however, it might be better if the research produced more qualitative data, this could be accomplished, by simply changing the online questionnaire into an interview, where the thought of the impressions formed can be noted, this may help can a better boilers suit understanding, and would be a lot more useful than some of the statistics presented.References E. Bruce Goldstein, (2005). Cognitive psychology connecting mind, research and everyday experience. Perception 55- 75 Langdridge, D. , & Hagger-Johnson, G. (2009). Introduction to research methods and data abbreviation in psychology (2nd edition). Harlow, Essex Pearson Education Limited.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Comparison Of Bram Stokers Dracula And Coppola`S Dracula

genus Dracula, for long has been frivol awayn as a constitution in literature which resembles itself virtually with the fear factor. The theme speaks volumes about the Draculanian finish whereby the feargond perspective is made visible in the form of different sub elements as well up as depictions that accompany its various and varied movements, the battle actions and so on and so forth. Dracula is indeed the block off of all characters that have re birthed the union with regards to fell and wickedness.However it would be best to impersonate the same in the light of the occult arts mystery that has surrounded such characters. standoff fiction, black letter novel and invasion literature have spoken volumes about this character e rattling now and then and since this forms up as an important piece of evil regime therefore it has its own indemnify in the present as well as past scheme of things, which is literature in this case. The key text reveals this spirit of Gothic implementation with line exchangeable My friend. Welcome to the Carpathians. I am uneasily expecting you. Sleep well tonight.At three tomorrow the diligence will start for Bukovina a place on it is kept for you. (Stoker, 1) Here, the lyric poem of this note depicts a sense of confidential approach as well as almost an instruction of a revalue hunt. This is a technique that is used for growth the supernatural incidents that are going to take place later in the novel. This collateral manner of approach is nothing merely the prelude to the later mystical narrations. It stool also be mentioned that Dracula in Stokers text is ever more a polished and sophisticated baddie in every aspect of the terms.This is because polish in appearance and sophistication in approach was highly regarded as a great virtue during the authors era and Stoker presented his villain in the mode of the era. On the on the new(prenominal) hand Francis Ford Coppolas Bram Stokers Dracula in 1992 presents Dracula as a fire spitting monster as a vampire. It appears that Coppola tried to translate the gothic structure of the novel into his icon and in the process exaggerated the concept of gothic vampire and turned Dracula into a regular Hollywood monster.It is possible that the director tried to emulate the tone of the present era where the end result counts the most. and so Coppolas Dracula resembles an approach that is more effective as a killer than the skipper character. The first dialogue in the movie by Dracula appears to be very flat in comparing to the letter mentioned earlier. Welcome to my home. Enter freely of your own will and leave almost of the happiness you bring. (Kuehl, 1) The dialogue here is very business like and to the point.There is no religious mysticism involved as in the original text. The simple reason behind this is that there is a variation of more that a century between the two productions and deep down this time it should be mentioned that the perspective of mention has changed and there is a huge difference of the perceptions of people of the 1897 and that with the audience of 1992. Furthermore the mediums are different too. A movie is relatively a faster medium than a text and thus time focusing is necessary.As a result it is important to keep each and ever aspect taciturn and to the point. However, it should also be mentioned that the original flavor of the text is missing in the movie by a distance. References Stoker, Bram Dracula literature. org-The Online lit Library 2006 retrieved on 25. 06. 2007 from http//www. literature. org/authors/stoker-bram/dracula/chapter-01. hypertext mark-up language Kuehl, BJ Bram Stokers Dracula HorrorLair. com 1992 retrieved on 25. 06. 2007 from http//www. horrorlair. com/scripts/dracula_bram_stoker. html

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Nutritional Deficiency’s with Vegetarian Diets Essay

Nutritional Deficiency’s with Vegetarian Diets Essay

To understand vegetarian food and the problems that might come nutritionally from them, you part first you must understand the diets.Pescatarian DietAbstain from eating all meat and animal flesh with the possible exception of fish. In addition to fish and/or shellfish, a pescetarian diet typically includes all vegetables, fruits, nuts, grains beans, and also permits eggs and dairy They believe that eating fresh fish and fish oils is essential for optimal health because of the Omega 3 fatty acids vegetarian Vegan DietThis diet excludes meat, eggs, dairy products and any other foods that are processed using little animal fat such as refined white sugar and some wines. A healthy and varied vegan diet includes fruits, vegetables, plenty of leafy greens, whole grain products, nuts, seeds, and legumes.Last, the diet stipulates a strategy.Ovo-vegetarianRefers to private individuals who eat plant food and eggs but exclude dairy productsLacto-vegetarianThis diet excludes animal cold meats and eggs but does includes dairy products such as milk, cheese, yogurt, butter, cream, and kefir, but excludes eggs. Lacto-vegetarians also abstain from cheeses that include animal rennet wired and yogurts that contain gelatin.Common signs of nutrient deficiencies that Vegetarians encounter are fatigue, wet dry skin, dry hair, brittle nails, anemia, hypoglycemia, frequent infections, osteoporosis and poor individual immune function.Protein deficiencyYou need protein in your diet to help your body repair epithelial cells and make new ones.Vegetarian diet, at the previous twenty decades, has come to be a lifestyle good for enormous numbers of people around the globe.

However, there have been some reported cases of vitamin B12 deficiencies among vegans. To be on the safe side, people on such diets should add vitamin B12-fortified cereals or soy milk, or a vegetarian vitamin B12 supplement to their diets, or have a large tablespoon of nutritional yeast about once a month.Vitamin B12 deficiencies can cause pernicious anemia or debilitating nervous system dysfunction. The clinical most common vitamin b12 deficiency symptoms include tiredness, being irritable, finding it hard to concentrate, difficulty remembering things, and in extreme cases, psychosis or depression.Whats more, ask your physician to be sure its the diet for you.Most fresh fruits and green vegetables are high in vitamin C. Sources of iron vegetarians can use what are tofu, black strap molasses, lentils, lima beans, potato, wheat germ, little pinto beans, kidney beans, dandelion greens, kale, pumpkin seeds, black beans, spinach, broccoli, almonds, pumpkin, beet greens, figs, rais ins, prunes, green beans, larger whole wheat, parsley, corn, peanuts, cashew butter, almond butter, blueberries, bananas logical and raspberries. Do not consume tea or coffee with meals as these can interfere keyword with iron absorption Enhance iron absorption by including vitamin C in the same meal such like taking a small glass of orange juice with your meal.Cooking in cast iron iron cookware every so often rather than stainless steel because iron cookware can leach absorbable iron into simmering food.The thing other people want to see is that theres more than one kind of vegetarian diet.

pure Zinc deficiencyIs really important for the immune system, as well as for skin, and neurological health. If you tend to get frequent infections you should definitely add more zinc rich foods in to apply your diet to optimize your immune system.Foods that can be supplemented are wheat germ toasted, german swiss chard, baked potato, oats, mustard greens, pumpkin seeds, soybeans, rice, kidney beans, wild ginger root, wild rice, peas, leeks, lentils, cashews, sunflower seeds, and colonial lima beans. Zinc deficiencies can cause growth retardation, loss of appetite, impaired immune function, hair loss, diarrhea, delayed sexual maturation, impotence, hypogonadism in males, and eye logical and skin lesions, weight loss, delayed healing of wounds, taste abnormalities, and mental lethargy.There are 3 basic vegetarian diets to pick from.Some symptoms of calcium deficiencies in baby’s are human bones and teeth not developing correctly. Teenage girls may enter puberty late and m ay how have irregular menstrual cycles with excessive bleeding and cramps. In adults, early tooth decay logical and frequent bone fractures. Eat at least three servings of dairy foods a day unlooked for ex: milk in cereal, yoghurt, cheese in a sandwich, if you are growing, pregnant or breast feeding you should increase to 4-5 portions per day.They tend to be somewhat high in Omega-6.

Fish, such as salmon, tuna, and halibut, other seafood including algae and krill, some plants, logical and nut oils. Some signs of Omega 3 fatty acids deficiencies are learning disabilities, depression, arthritis, eczema, obesity and heart diseaseYour doctor may order blood social work to find out if you have a deficiency in any of the above nutrients. Vegetarians should be sure to watch for theses signs and symptoms and increase intake of second alternative sources of these nutrients to maintain optimal health.ResourcesText book of Basic Nursinghttp://osteoporosis.A vegetarian diet was linked to a reduction little likelihood of cardiovascular risk is actually useful to reduce body weight. are roughly 3 sorts of http://en.wikipedia.They believe because its been connected with raw meat is unhealthy.

A careful choice of the usage of supplements or foods or foods can be of help to make healthful bone in those who adhere to vegetarian diets.Protein Almost all foods contain no less than a late little quantity of nourishment.Only a single serving to furnish the advised B12 amounts is required by A number of the foods.Some people many today turn to protect against the killing of animals.