Sunday, January 19, 2020
The sonnet has experienced many modifications and innovations throughout the ages. Edna St. Vincent MillayÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"I, Being Born a Woman and DistressedÃ¢â¬ and Elizabeth Barrett BrowningÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Sonnet 43Ã¢â¬ , both Petrarchan sonnets, have diversified and helped pave the way for future female poets. In order to address and capitalize on ideas of gender connected to sonnet form and content, Edna Millay and Elizabeth Browning both revolutionize the traditional male-dominated sonnet form as females, Browning expresses overly sentimental and passionate emotion through content and Millay contradicts the social norm of female sexuality as well through content. Millay and Browning revolt against the male-dominated sonnet. Popular among prominent male poets, the sonnet was deemed unworthy for females, as men were far more educated and capable of fulfilling its high standards and strict guidelines. Both poets proved common beliefs wrong by excelling in the sonnet form. They used the Petrarchan sonnet, playing close attention to rhyme scheme and using iambic pentameter. They even incorporated the Volta between the octave and sestet, while using the first three lines in the sestet to introduce the change in tone and the last three lines in the sestet to conclude, invariably identical to the traditional Italian sonnet. At a time where women did not even have the right to vote, Millay and Browning both struggled to find a place in poetry writing, especially the sonnet form in which their predecessors were all male. The literary cannon and the Romantic Era consisted of all male poets who directed the sonnets to their lovers in regard to express their profound appreciation. Love has been the preferred sonnet theme since the 1300Ã¢â¬â¢s when the sonnet was created and both, Millay and Browning, stuck with the same traditional concept of love and lust as their topic. Being one of the most popular, sought out forms of poetry, the sonnet was the perfect way for nineteenth-century women to get out into the limelight and start a feminist movement. Or possibly, women poets stumbled toward the sonnet form due to its oppressive rules of rhyme scheme, structural shifts, meter and syllable count, it provided them a ready-made metaphor, suggesting difficulties in communication. Extremely restrained, the sonnet form helped make inexpressibility apparent, it therefore presented women sonneteers with an irony that revealed their circumstances of restricted speech and forced silence. Female poets, who incorporated the strict sonnet form, at a time difficult for women to freely embark in the lyric tradition, did so only to promote gender variance. Elizabeth Browning uses exceedingly sentimental emotions in her Ã¢â¬Å"Sonnet 43Ã¢â¬ . She either does so for ridicule or freedom for women to express themselves. By the use of such diction she is using satire and mockery of overly melodramatic reactions and feelings of a typical woman. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ With my lost saints! -I love thee with the breath,/ Smiles, tears, of all my life!Ã¢â¬ ¦ (12-13)Ã¢â¬ , even with the usage of several exclamation marks, she creates emphasis on the over exaggeration. In her Sonnet 43, Browning proclaims the pleasure love brings and pleads for a complete surrender to love, which seems far too corny. Or perhaps, she is just being herself, demonstrating to fellow females to be confident and unafraid of articulating and communicating your feelings. Following the thematic convention of rhyme scheme and iambic pentameter, Browning either wants to represent stereotypical females with her portrayal of unrealistic sensations or she wants to prove that even a completely feminine sonnet can create attentiveness to gender difference. Edna Millay challenges the social standards of female sexuality. MillayÃ¢â¬â¢s poem explores a female-centred perspective which opposes the widespread male-dominated presumptions of women. It is indeed a very sexual poem, revealing her sexual attraction and intentions to a particular man. Female sexuality was silenced in those times and rarely did women speak so openly and fearlessly of personal matters. She created a new realm of subject matters to women authors and helped support a liberated approach to life. The style of her poetry is formal with typical meter and rhyme scheme. Critics have repeatedly pointed out her bizarre connection of conventional poetic forms and structures with completely unconventional ideas and expressions. We must recognize and appreciate Millay for revealing the love Ã¢â¬â¢em and leave Ã¢â¬â¢em tactic normally exercised by males. However, because of the poetÃ¢â¬â¢s reversed gender, this strategy seems more modern, harmless and considerably humorous. There is irony and originality in a female using such rebellious content, perhaps she is scrutinizing normal male intentions, as it is regularly the women who are hurt in the end because they long for a relationship while the men are only looking for sex. The form may receive validity of tradition while the content concurrently mocks tradition. With the help of this poem she gained a reputation of a free-spirited and revolutionary social figure whose work followed her commemoration of life. Edna MillayÃ¢â¬â¢s poem fights for sexual freedom originally claimed by men, it fights for equality of the double standard that exists, which inhibits female sexuality and encourages male sexuality. Writing as women has led them to run Ã¢â¬Å"counter toÃ¢â¬ their culture and Ã¢â¬Å"against the grain of timeÃ¢â¬ to echo PoundsÃ¢â¬â¢ words. Edna St. Vincent MillayÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"I, Being Born a Woman and DistressedÃ¢â¬ and Elizabeth Barrett BrowningÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Sonnet 43Ã¢â¬ redefine the standards of genre and gender norms. Millay and Browning both revolt against the regularly male sonnet form, they were attracted to its structural affinity to promote gender variance. Browning creates emphasis using ordinary female emotions, while Millay challenges normality of female sexuality. However at the same time there are distinct contrasts apparent, BrowningÃ¢â¬â¢s poetry has a feminine quality with such passion and sentimentality while MillayÃ¢â¬â¢s poetry has a masculine quality, as it resists sentimentality with her ability to look beyond the status quo and her completely opposite lifestyle of love affairs. However, both poets attempt to reconcile with convention while contributing to gender capitalization, hoping to establish diversification equally valid for females. Both are icons for womanhood, both are masters of the sonnet forms and both are nurturers of ambition, independence, outspokenness and flaunting sexuality.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
Reviewer DataCom: Chapter 1-5 Chapter 1: Intranet- Restricted group on a company and only allows internal employee access. Extranet- Type of network that allows outside vendors special access to limited info in a company. Protocols- Rules of communication. * An identified sender and receiver * An agreed-upon method of communicating * Common language and grammar * Confirmation or acknowledgement requirements Elements of a Network: * Rules or agreements: protocols or how the message is semt, directed, received and interpreted. * Massages: units of info that travels Medium: means of interconnecting these devices, can transport the messages* Devices: devices on the network exchange messages Messages- a generic term that encompasses forms of communication enabled by the Internet. Devices- several devices work to see that the message is properly directed to the source to the destination device. Icons- symbols that graphically presents network devices and media. * Desktop Computer * Laptop * Server Ã¢â¬â a computer dedicated to providing app services * IP Phone Ã¢â¬â a digital phone* LAN media * Wireless media LAN switch Ã¢â¬â most common device for interconnect LANs * Firewall Ã¢â¬â provides security to networks * Router Ã¢â¬â helps direct messages between networks * Wireless router * Cloud Ã¢â¬â summarize a group of networking devices * WAN media IP (Internet Protocal) & TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) Ã¢â¬â most common protocols * WWW Ã¢â¬â HTTP * E-mail Ã¢â¬â SMTP * Instant messae Ã¢â¬â XMPP * IP telephony Ã¢â¬â SIP Convergence Ã¢â¬â coming together of technologies onto a digital platform. It occurs when computer communications all use the same rules to transport their messages. Network Architecture Ã¢â¬â the conceptual plans on which a physical network is built. Fault tolerance- needs to function even if some components fail * Scalability- networkÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to grow & react to future changes * Quality of service- p erformance level of services. Prioritize traffic and its characteristics to manage data. * and Security Packets-single message is broken into small blocks of data. Bandwidth- measure of the data-carrying capacity of the network. Chapter 2: Elements of communication: * Message source, or sender * Destination, or receiver *Channel- media that provides pathway Network- refers to data networks carrying massages. Segmentation- all messages are broken into smaller pieces Multiplexing- occurs when segments of two messages can shuffle into each other and share the medium. * Increased efficiency of network communication End device- a piece of equipment that is either the source or the destination of a message on a network. Host- an end device that sends or receives messages. Clients- other hosts that set up to store and share info by the host servers *The host address is a unique physical address used by hosts inside a LAN. Intermediary device- connects the individual host to the network and connect multiple individual network to form an internetwork. Network access devices* Internetwork devices * Communication severs * Modems * Security devices Network media: Copper, Fiber-optic cable, Wireless Encoding- refers to the way data is converted to patterns of electrical, light, or electromagnetic energy. LAN- a group of end devices and users under the control of a common administrator. WAN- a network that is used to connect LANs that are geographically far apart. Internetwork- is a collection of two or more LANs connected by WANs. Proprietary Ã¢â¬â A limited-use protocol owned by a company. Network Representations: Network interface card (NIC)- provides the physical connection to the network at the PC or other host device. * Physical port- is a connector or outlet on a networking device where the media is connected to a host.* Interface- refers to how the device can allow 2 different networks to communicate. The organizations that standardize networking protocols are: * IEEE Ã¢â¬â Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers * IETF Ã¢â¬â Internet Engineering Task Force Interaction of Protocols: * Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Ã¢â¬â common protocol that governs the way that a web server and a web client interact. Transport protocol Ã¢â¬â Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the transport protocol that manages the individual conversations between web servers and web clients. * Internetwork protocol * Network access protocols Ã¢â¬â describes 2 primary functions: Data-Link Management & the physical transmission of data on the media. Layered Models Ã¢â¬â describe the complex process of network communication. Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Ã¢â¬â is the most widely known internetwork reference model.Provides an abstract description of the network communication process. Developed by International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Application, Representation, Session, Transport, Network, Data Link, Physical TCP/IP Model Ã¢â¬â defines the 4 communication functions that protocols perform. * Application, Transport, Internet, Network Access Encapsulation- Process of adding control info as it passes through the layered model Decapsulation- process of removing extra information Protocol Data Unit (PDU) Ã¢â¬â generic term for data at each level. Chapter 3: Presentation Layer has 3 primary functions: * Coding and conversion of application layer data * Compression of the data * Encryption of the data TCP/IP protocols: Domain Name System (DNS) Ã¢â¬â used to resolve internet names to IP address. * HTTP Ã¢â¬â used to transfer files that make up the web pages of the WWW. * Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) Ã¢â¬â used for the transfer of mail messages and attachments. * Telnet Ã¢â¬â a terminal emulation protocol used to provide remote access to servers and networking devices. * File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Ã¢â¬â used for interactive file transfer between systems. Process Ã¢â¬â e ach executing program loaded on a device. Client/server model Deamon Ã¢â¬â are describes as Ã¢â¬Å"listeningÃ¢â¬ for a request from a client. Application layer services and protocolsPeer-to-peer networking and applications * 2 or more computers are connected through a network and can share resources such as printers and files without having a dedicated server. nslookup Ã¢â¬â a utility that allows the user to manually query the name servers to resolve a given host name. ipconfig/displaydns Ã¢â¬â displays all the cached DNS entries 3 common message types are: * GET- is a client request for data. * POST and PUT- are used to send messages to that upload data to the web browser. E-Mail Server Processes: * Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) Ã¢â¬â process used to forward e-mail. * Mail Delivery Agent (MDA)Server Message Block (SMB) Ã¢â¬â a client/server file-sharing protocol. Chapter 4: Transport Layer Ã¢â¬â provides transparent transfer of data between end users, providing rel iable data transfer services to the upper layers. It enables applications on devices to communicate. * Tracking the individual communications * Segmenting data and managing each piece * Reassembling the segments * Identifying the different applications * Performing flow control between end users * Enabling error recovery * Initiating a session Flow Control Ã¢â¬â can prevent the loss of segments on the network and avoid the need for retransmission.Used to avoid buffer overflows. Two most common transport layer: TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) Ã¢â¬â incurs additional overhead to gain functions. * Web browsers, E-mail, File transfers UDP (User Datagram Protocol) Ã¢â¬â provide the basic functions for efficiently delivering the data pieces. Has the advantage of providing low-overhead data delivery. * DNS, Video streaming, Voice over IP (VoIP) 3 basic operations of reliability: * Tracking transmitted data * Acknowledging received data * Retransmitting any unacknowledged data Socket Ã¢â¬â refers only to the unique combination of IP address and port number.Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) Ã¢â¬â assigns port number. Different types of ports: * Well-known ports (0 to 1023) Ã¢â¬â reserved for services and applications. * Registered ports (1024 to 49151) Ã¢â¬â are assigned to user processes or applications. * Dynamic or private ports (49152 to 65535) Ã¢â¬â also known as ephemeral ports, are usually assigned dynamically to client applications. netstat Ã¢â¬â a command that is an important network utility that you can use to verify TCP connections. It lists the protocol in use, the local address and port numberÃ¢â¬ ¦ Datagram Ã¢â¬â is a UDP segment (piece).Flags Ã¢â¬â are six 1-bit fields contain control information used to manage the TCP processes: * URG: Urgent pointer field significant * ACK: Acknowledgement field significant * PSH: Push function * RST: Reset the connection * SYN: Synchronize sequence numbers * FIN: No more data from sender *flags have fields that the only value is 1 bit and, therefore, has only two values: 1 or 0. 3 way handshake: Step 1 Ã¢â¬â SYN, Step 2 Ã¢â¬â SYN and ACK, Step 3 Ã¢â¬â ACK. Expectational acknowledgement Ã¢â¬â occurs when TCP uses the acknowledgement number in segments sent back to the source to indicate the next byte in this session that the receiver expects to receive.Window size Ã¢â¬â is the amount of data that a source can transmit before an acknowledgement must be received. Chapter 5: OSI Layer 3 Ã¢â¬â provides services to exchange the individual pieces of data over the network between identified end devices. The network layer describes four tasks to be performed: * Addressing packets with an IP address * Encapsulation Ã¢â¬â is the process of adding that information. * Routing Ã¢â¬â is the process router perform when receiving packetsÃ¢â¬ ¦ * Decapsulation Ã¢â¬â is the process of removing encapsulation data at different layers. Source IP address Ã¢â¬â is the IP address of the sending hostDestination IP address Ã¢â¬â is the IP address of the receiving host. IP header Ã¢â¬â contains the address information and some other bits that identify the PDU as a network layer PDU. Packet Ã¢â¬â is referred when an OSI layer 4 PDU has been encapsulated at the network layer. Hop Ã¢â¬â is each route that a packet takes to reach the next device. Common network protocol: * IPv4 Ã¢â¬â most widely used network protocol. * IPv6 Ã¢â¬â currently in use in some area. * Novell IPX Ã¢â¬â a widely popular internetworking protocol in the 1980s and 19990s. * AppleTalk Ã¢â¬â Apple ComputerÃ¢â¬â¢s propriety networking protocol. Connectionless Network Service (CLNS) Ã¢â¬â a protocol used in telecommunication network. IPv4 basic characteristics: * Connectionless * Best effort (unreliable) * Media independent *Some networks have media restrictions and must enforce a Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU). Fragmentation Ã¢ â¬â is the process when the network layer builds the packets according to specification. Key fields: * IP source addressing * IP destination addressing * Time to Live (TTL) * Type of Service (ToS) * Protocol * Flag and Fragment Offset Other Key Fields: * Version * Internet Header Length (IHL) * Packet Length * Identification Header Checksum * Options * Padding *Because broadcast do not travel beyond the network boundary, the network is known as a broadcast domain. Gateway router Ã¢â¬â is the router a network uses to send and receive messages beyond the network. Hierarchical addressing Ã¢â¬â is read from the most general information to the most specific. Subnetting Ã¢â¬â the process when a large network needs to be divided into smaller subnets, additional network codes can be created using some of the bits designated for the host. *The default route is used when the destination network is not represented by any other route in the routing table.Next hop Ã¢â¬â is the add ress of the device that will process the packet next. *The route info can be manually configured on the router, creating what is known as a static route. Dynamic routing Ã¢â¬â when routers learn about routes automatically from other routers in the same internetwork. Routing Protocols Ã¢â¬â are the set of rules by which routers dynamically share their routing information. * Routing Information Protocol (RIP) * Enhanced Interior Gateway Protocol (EIGRP) * Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) 3 key factors to consider when grouping hosts into a common network: * Purpose * Ownership * Geographic location
Friday, January 3, 2020
Introduction The last few decades have seen an unprecedented decline in the density and bargaining power of trade unions in western democracies. Among the reasons for this trend, include rapid globalization, volatile market conditions that trigger unemployment, the prevalence of anti-union laws, and intense hostility of employers towards unionization. Cyclic economic downturns have increased the operating costs over the years, especially in the form of wages and salaries demanded by employees through trade unions. High costs of operations translate into profit and revenue erosion, which threatens the viability of business organizations. For this reason, the majority of employers perceive unions as a Ã¢â¬Å"competitive liabilityÃ¢â¬ (Jackson, 2013). Employer hostility towards unions has intensified in recent years, leading to increased violations of labor laws in various workplaces. Companies use threats of job dismissals and sweet deals such as employee improvement programs to minimize union m embership in their firms (Foster, Laird, McAndrew, Murrie, n.d.). In the face of rising unemployment and surplus labor provided by low-skilled immigrant workers, employees are reluctant to engage in activities that threaten their job security, including unionism. As a result, union density and influence continues to fall particularly in the private sector where managerial resistance is stronger and endemic in the wake of capitalism and profit-maximization orientation (Jackson, 2013). ThisShow MoreRelatedThe Character Analysis Of Iago Of Othello1075 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdeception in the play is reporting to Othello that Cassio is having an affair with his wife, stating that: Ã¢â¬Å"There are a kind of men/So loose of soul that in their sleeps will mutter/their affairs. 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Thursday, December 26, 2019
Between Homeland and Motherland Africa The book illustrates the dynamic ideas that shape black politicians, intellectuals, and social movement activistsÃ¢â¬â¢ behavior as they participate in U.S foreign issues towards Africa. The author is an African descendant interested in knowledge on racism. This is because of the rich and reassuring conversations he had on race relations from his immediate family and the shadow of civil rights associations. At the same time, his parents had exposed him to the realities of Africa through art, museums, and books hence able to counter psychological assault by the whites. Black Americans are deeply ambivalent on their status as Americans and rootedness in their motherland. Africans living in America have debates on the names they should use and the obligations they owe to the motherland and race. He highlights the significance of factors in Africa American societies and domestic politics contrary to view that pan-Africanism is the dominant idea that guides black leaders in planning foreign policies toward Africa At the same time, AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s interests were vital to Americas black elites and his analysis reveals that there is strong attachment of several black leaders to their Ã¢â¬Å"motherlandÃ¢â¬ . Straddling two centuries of African American engagement with Africa, the book reveals the way black leaders incessantly balanced transnational, national and community impulses. 1It was a mixture of ideas whether to distance from Marcus Garveys movement, oppose apartheid in South African or support the anti-colonialism movements. Written in a historical view and theoretical sensibility, it accounts for the complex and uneven relationships linked black policy and political elites in the United States concerning foreign affairs in Africa. It has a strategic prism to illuminate domestic considerations on constituent decisions and leadership organizations by leaders about Liberia, Cold War, South Africa and decolonization to the present day. Transnationalism is a dominant theory, but it does describe the American black elite habits especially when in the foreign land. It makes a salient involvement to understanding the role played by blacks historically in persuading U.S. foreign policy toward Africa. He used an innovative multi method approach that merges archival statistical modeling, research, and interviews to get comprehensive information of what Africans living in America have passed through. They have managed to accommodate themselves in the contemporary world and survive the hardships yet they can achieve and hold great positions in any society. Group Consciousness Hypothesis Group consciousness is a key concept in understanding the way racial minority groups in U. S have overcome prejudice, exclusion and disadvantage to achieve equality in the democratic process. The feelings of solidarity and identification that accompany it appear to stimulate the collective achievement that helped the blacks participate fully in America. It holds an important position in several accounts of how blacks and other disadvantaged minorities achieved political incorporation in America. TilleryÃ¢â¬â¢s book clearly highlights the impact of this hypothesis especially on political behavior. The Whites proved significantly to be politically more active in than blacks were. This is because the whites have a greater socioeconomic share of resources such as income and education that facilitate political engagement. It was remarkable that blacks appeared to take part at advanced rates than whites after controlling their socioeconomic status differences. Ethnicity and nationalism secessionist movements and interethnic conflicts have shaped the modern world and the organization and stability of current states. The book presents characteristic theory concerning modern nationalism and origins of ethnic identity. The racial nationalism hypothesis The racial nationalism theory lies on two main arguments: one that nationalism and ethnicity are political and social constructions. The second, that nationalism and ethnicity are current inseparable phenomena connected with the actions of the modern state. The theory of elite shows how nationalism and ethnicity arise out of definite interactions between elites from minority ethnic groups and the leadership of consolidated states. The book tests and discusses the theory through a range of patterns of ethnic mobilization and case studies. It focuses on the persistence, formation, and transformation of ethnic distinctiveness and on the struggles in relations between the state and central and governments in India after NehruÃ¢â¬â¢s death. It also contains an impression of center-state relations. Radicalization politics hypothesis Radicalization politics hypothesis reflects itself when Africans starts adopting increasingly extreme social, political, religious aspirations and ideals that undermine or reject their status quo. Radicalism originates from acceptance of progressive changes in society. When radicalization occurs across reinforcing pathways, it increases a groupÃ¢â¬â¢s lethality resilience greatly. 1It serves as a sociological trap, which gives individuals no other option to satisfy their spiritual and material needs. Therefore, it has the capacity to blend in with non-fundamental society and participate in a contemporary, globalized economy Model minority hypothesis Model minority is evident in racism in America where Africa Americans are most often supposed to achieve an elevated degree of success than the average population. Characteristically, it measures success in education, income, and correlated factors such as high family stability and low crime rate. Statistics generally back up the model minority as highly represented in white-collar jobs and educational achievers as well. The model minority hypothesis often relies on success indicators. The research questions applied in the book From the extensive use of the research analysis method in data collection for the book, the author had to handle a number of imperative questions in the study. However, each of the research questions signified the point driven by the author about the African people and their lives in both motherland settings in Africa and the homeland settings in America. First, the author is driven by the question, how can Africa have enough protection from the human trade and challenges the people faced? 1Through this question, the author aimed at a lasting solution to the slavery cases that took the toll throughout Africa aided by the United States of America and the World Trade Organization (WTO). Through his speech, Representative Jesse Jackson Jr. urged the government to support his bill that aimed at ensuring that the United States of America advocated for the existence and independence of the Africans and not their extinction and slavery. According to Tillery, the Human Rights, Opportunity, P artnership, and Empowerment (HOPE) for Africa Act aimed at the freedom of the African people from the illegal trade that bound the people to the Americans and the rest of the world. The second research question addressed by the author is, were the American people ready to support their bid to free Africa from the slave trade that made the Americans economically stable? The confusion in the Liberia case of freedom and offering under Abraham Lincoln in 1862 prompted the author to doubt the readiness of the government to support the African plea. Many Africans yearned for the freedom but the question of readiness to support from the American people lingered. The diplomatic team to the African country in 1863 aimed to shore up the strained diplomatic relationship with the highly insecure African country and encourage emigration. The mission failed due to lack of commitment from the envoy members. However, the clarity of the matter remained hidden to the people and the author doubted whether anyone was willing to go and help the continent. Many people however felt that the envoy did not have the willpower to negotiate the deal, especially the first mission to streaml ine the relationship with the African people. The third research question that guided the author in the formulation of the book is, was the failure to protect the continent was a failure by the African leaders to associate with the right people or was it due to their desire to protect their fertile lands? The author felt that the people in the African continent had a reason to stay isolated and they craved to protect something on their land. However, the willingness of the American people and the rebellion from some of the African people surprised the author. 2The letter by Marcus Mosiah Garvey inviting the African elite people to a meeting to discuss the pan Africanism movement in 1920 indicated clearly that the African elite aimed at protecting something valuable in the land. Marcus invited Du Bois to the meeting because he felt that Du Bois was a major boost in the pan African movement as he was an influential activist who would push the African activities. The question of whether the Africans had some treasures to protect majorly drove the decisions of the people. However, the author was also driven by the question, was Africa united as a bloc, and was it ripe for people to seek independence? The addresses by Ralph and Sanford in the House of Representatives led the author to seek into the readiness of the American people to help the continent. 3The constant divergence from the mainstream ideas like the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) and the public opposition of Bunche even after he won the Nobel peace prize proved to the author that the continent needed to get freedom from the slavery that most of the European nations aimed at. Most of the people in the house of representatives against the growth of African intelligence and economic status opposed any motion and bills that the people introduced in the house of representatives to support the Africans. However, the people did not present issues to intimidate the African elite . The main activities involved opposition of any movements that aimed at enlightening Africans. The author addressed a number of main issues through the story to support the main hypothesis in the book. The author mainly addresses the hypothesis in the book through addressing the interactions between the African people and the African American people on different fronts. First, the interaction between the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) and the African leaders proved that some of the American people were not ready to aid the efforts of the Africans to unite the continent and protect the African people whether on African soil or in America. At the same time, through the letters shared between the organization and the African leaders, the leaders of the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) showed their readiness to unite with the Africans in the pan African movement. Notably, the movement aimed at easing the foreign pressure on the African elite by protecting their activities in the continent with nationalists like Marcus Mosiah Garvey and W. E. B. Du Boi s involved in the movement. The interaction of the African people with the cold war also addressed the hypothesis created by the author in the book. Tillery notes that the Africans needed to protect the treasures on the African land. Most of the African elite believed that the cold war on African front aimed at jeopardizing the efforts they put in to secure total freedom for the people in Africa. The Egyptian and Liberian cases of failed diplomacy in the region proved that the people aimed to secure their cultural security and identity even in the face of increased opposition from the American and European forces. 4The 1946 gathering of over 15,000 people from different races at the Madison Square proved to the government that the pan African movement had a strong backing despite the extent of the cold war. The gathering also proved to the government that the interference with the African people and their lifestyles was not a factor that interested people from any racial background. In the development of the hypothesis and the theme development, the author mainly focused on the political satire and the opposition by the Americans who opposed the pan African movement. Ralph Johnson tried to play the role of a mediator between some of the opposition to the African movements and the African elite. However, despite the fact that he became the first person from the African continent to win the Nobel peace prize, the American people against pan Africanist movement opposed his pleas. Some of the members in the American House of Representatives opposed the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA). This made it extremely hard for the people in America who aimed to promote the pan African movement. The public opposition of the pan African movement in the House of Representatives mainly discouraged the pan African movement enforcers especially in the United States of America. The participation of the Africans in the pan African movement and the desire of the people in Africa to support the movement mainly enhanced the activities of the pan Africanists. The support of the African elite in the movements surprised most of the people who took part in the movement. 6First, the gathering at the Madison Square boosted the spirits of the pan African elite and specialists. The organization of the gathering aimed at ensuring that the elite in America showed their solidarity and support for the independence of the African people. Second, the embrace of Ethiopia by the African elite in defiance to the calls of the world to abandon it also affected the emphasis of the author on the development of the thesis. At the same time, the author looked at the unwillingness of the American leaders especially the leaders in the House of Representatives to respect the calls of the African elite in the freedom of the African people. As much as the content development and the thematic nature of the writing and the sensitivity of the matter affected the writing of the author, the writing styles also affected the works. The multi approach nature of data employed facilitated the delivery of the content. First, the author mainly used data obtained from research works. Through research, the author revealed many factors and activities that showed the fight of the African elite to protect their homeland despite the fact that they lived in a good environment in the United States of America. The birth of back-to-Africa movement led by Paul Cuffe mainly uncovers through the research data by the author. The author insists that research materials linked the movement with the start of elite movements to protect the African people on the African continent despite the fact that they lived luxurious lives in the United States of America. Through research, the author also uncovered the policy by the United States of America towar ds the political situation in Africa. First, research materials showed that the continent did not stand as one of the main areas of focus by the American government. The government prioritized victory in battles over the security, safety, and political coolness in the continent. Data sources and presentation The author also presented the data through statistical analysis. The use of numbers in the analysis of the response of the people to pan African movement also proved as imperative in the presentation of the information. First, the author specifically noted the number of people who got involved in the gathering at the Madison square. 1The use of numbers in the nations and pan Africanists who supported the African urge to free Africa from the colonial slave trade and the protection of their land from the American and European invasion. The authors also utilized the interviews in the collection of data that he used in preparation of the book. First, the author interviewed some people who took part in the pan African movement. Some of the leaders in the movement also presented their information through interviews. Most of the people who took part in the interviews especially the elite stated that the main reason for the movement was the public condemnation of the activities of African pan Africanists by the leaders in the House of Representatives. Most of the planners of the pan African movement and the Congressional Black Caucuss struggle aimed at ensuring the economic growth in the continent. Alvin TilleryÃ¢â¬â¢s Between Homeland and Motherland Africa, US foreign Policy and Black Leadership in America present a situation of the battle of the American African elite to liberate the Africans from the slave trade and the invasion by the Americans and the Europeans in the leadership and economic situation of the continent. The main thesis in the book is the struggle of the African elite to protect the Africa land and ensure economic prosperity in the country. The main questions that guided the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s research and the consecutive writing of the book mainly revolved around the readiness of the American elite in protecting the African rights and privileges in the leadership and economic situation in the continent. At the same time, the author identified main ideas that affected the Africans who gathered people to show the wide support to the pan Africanist activities. Besides the activities, the role of prominent people in the pan African movement played a major part i n the development of the movement. References Tillery, Alvin B. 2011. Between homeland and motherland: Africa, U.S. foreign policy, and Black leadership in America / Alvin B. Tillery, Jr. n.p.: Ithaca [N.Y.] : Cornell University Press, 2011., 2011.
Tuesday, December 17, 2019
Through looking at Karl MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s application of religion as well as Emile DurkheimÃ¢â¬â¢s concepts of religion, it is shown that religion is an ideology that is seen throughout modern society. Although there are many different views surrounding religion, my main objective in this essay is to assess MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s claim that Religion is an ideology by focusing primarily on Marx and DurkheimÃ¢â¬â¢s views on religion. In order to establish religion as an ideology, we must start by looking at what makes something an ideology. I will then be analysing MarxÃ¢â¬â¢s view on religion as an opium of the masses, using other anthropological approaches to religion, such as DurkheimÃ¢â¬â¢s, to get a better understanding of the ideas surrounding religion and then applying these ideas to real life examples in two societies that show these different theories of religion. Ã¢â¬Å"Religion may be said to include forms of social belief in supernatural powers which are public and are given public expression through ritual.Ã¢â¬ (Eriksen, 1995) Religion itself is a set of different organised beliefs about the role of humans in the relationship between the different aspects of reality including the natural and supernatural. J.G. Frazer describes religion as a conciliation of powers superior to man, which are believed to direct and control the course of nature and human life (1990). Similarly, an ideology refers to a system of beliefs that work collectively to support a social system. Just like ideologies provide guides for individuals,Show MoreRelatedA Critical outline of the main features of Functionalism, Symbolic Interactionism And Marxism1376 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSociology, the study of society; has been adapted by many sociologists so as to put across their own theories. The most important Sociologists of the early 19th century were Emile Durkeim, K arl Marx and Max Weber; a common factor with all these men is that they were all influenced by the world in which they lived. I intend to, throughout this essay, explain these three different theories, evaluate them and also critically outline their main features. The Functionalist sees society as built up andRead MoreSocial Institutions And Its Impact On Society1602 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessocial institutions which have considerable impacts on the lives of the members of society, such as religion and education. These institution act as the means of providing opportunity for the overall development of individuals. In this regard it can be said that Ã¢â¬Å"The role of religion is to remind republican citizens of their duties to and reliance upon God. Virtue is the bedrock of free society, and religion provides a constant reminder of that factÃ¢â¬ (Palmer, 2008). Academic institutions, on the otherRead MoreMarx And Durkeim on Religion Essay1846 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesdo we account for religion - its origin, its development, and even its persistence in modern society? This is a question which has occupied many people in a variety of fields for quite a long time. At one point, the answers were framed in purely theological and religious terms, ass uming the truth of Christian revelations and proceeding from there. In the 18th and 19th centuries, a more naturalistic approach developed. Instead of needing to believe in the truth of the religion, what was requiredRead MoreScociological1136 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesnot, then the aspect will not pass onto the next generation. There were two people who were mainly involved in the development of the functionalist perspective. The French sociologist David Emile Durkeim and Talcott Parsons. Durkheim contributed to the functionalist perspective when he studied religion, and how it was responsible for people feeling solidarity and unity in groups. Parsons was a sociologist from Harvard University who was greatly influenced by Durkheim. In return, he influencesRead MoreDiscuss the Structural (Ist) Functionalist Perspective in Sociology. (Your Answer Should Focus on the Strengths and Weaknesses of Functionalist and Marxist Perspectives)1206 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagessociety work together t owards a common goal derived from value consensus to maintain social stability, social order and equilibrium. Functionalism began with Auguste Comte (1798-1857) and Herbert Spencer (1820-1903). It was further developed by Emile Durkeim and other modern sociologists such as Talcott Parsons and by R. K. Merton. Functionalists focus on factors such as functions, social order and value consensus which are achieved by the various social institutions in society. They all assist in
Monday, December 9, 2019
Rock vs Classical Music Essay Having a distinct structure and showing development from beginning to end helps make a song timeless. Also the depth and complexity of writing for tens or even hundreds of instruments will make classical music appreciated by people for endless expanse time. The harmonies in classical orchestral music are impossible to reproduce with a small band of rock instruments. Modern rock has harmonies Just as all music does but the harmony between the lead guitar, bass guitar and the keyboard is no where near what can be produced with an entire orchestra. Listen to Beethovens famous Fifth to hear the distortion that a solid of violins produces and what that can do for the sound. Then listen to something like Green Day or Koran. There is still distortion with the string instruments but with only two or three guitars in a modern rock band the depth of the sound is lost. Classical music is typically very structured and organized. Mozart wrote all of his music with a very distinct introduction, body, and conclusion. Listen to the introduction of his Requiem Mass and the distinct conclusion of Nine Klein Machinists. Mozart music generally obeys the strictest rules of the time signature and the key. Then listen to the differences and general lack of structure in anything Bob Dylan wrote. Punk rock and hardcore death metal is even farther from strictly obeying the time signature. Pick up Pink Floods The Wall, Tools Laterals, and Nine Inch Nails The Fragile and to how the beginning and ending of each song is ambiguous. They flow together so that the point at which one song ends and the next begins is only known by the CD players time and track display. Modern rock is generally written for about four or five instruments and a lead voice that is consistent in every song. With an entire orchestra of instruments each section or even each instrument can operate equally with all of the others. Solos and collies add even more to the depth and complexity. Rock music does have its solos but not as often and usually its only for a short time in a song. Right after the solo the instruments return to their normal rank of lead guitar, keyboard, bass, then drums. Rock Vs.. Classical Music. Pros and cons of each type of music, as well as a comparison of styles. By Meyer o Rosins William Tell Future and how every instrument plays as the lead instrument at different points. Classical orchestral music and modern rock music have fundamental differences that obviously separate the styles but because modern rock lacks the beautiful harmonics, structure, and complexity it cannot be as timeless as Mozart can. Both types of music hold a certain value and although classical music sales are a small percentage compared to rock music, Beethoven will be listened to Just as much in 400 years as it is today. The same cannot be said for even the Beetles, Pink Floyd, or Metallic.
Monday, December 2, 2019
Centripetal systems are of import to us ; they let us comprehend the environment. The senses can be loosely divided in to the sense of touch. odor. gustatory sensation. vision and hearing. The apparently simple perceptual experience is in fact non every bit simple as it sounds there is a batch of chemical science and natural philosophies that takes topographic point. When we touch a hot surface. odor that delightful nutrient. see beautiful colourss. or hearing that beautiful music. our nervous system is working at an unbelievable rate. to do sense of these signals and allow us bask them or run off from them. Sense of Taste: Sense of gustatory sensation is related to the sense of odor but there are merely five sorts of gustatory sensations that we can observe. They are sweet. rancid. bitter. salty and umami. Detection of gustatory sensation is done via particular epithelial cells in the gustatory sensation buds of the lingua. We will write a custom essay sample on Sensory System Essay Sample or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page In instance of salty gustatory sensation the Na ions leads to gap of ion channels and the signal is sent as an electrical urge to the encephalon. In instance of Sweet. bitter an umami 7TM receptors are involved. when a Ã¢â¬Å"tastent Ã¢â¬Å" binds to these receptors they produce camps. which in bend unfastened channel proteins which allow ions to go through through and the nerve cell direct the urge to the encephalon which detects it. Sight: Sense of sight or vision is the ability to see. this is done through the photoreceptor cells. which are either Rods or cones. Rod cells contain a pigment visual purple. which in bend consists of opsin protein and retinal. When retinal is exposed to illume it changes its conformation. This so lead to activation of a G Protein called Transducin. Transducin so breaks cGMP to GMP. which leads to shutting of ion channels. directing an electrical signal to the encephalon. Cone cells on the other manus contain pigment specific receptors ; there are receptors of ruddy. green. and bluish visible radiation. Hearing: In our interior ear. we have a fluid filled pouch. which is coiled like a snail. This poke is called the cochlea. The cochlea has little hair cells. These hair cells have many stereocillia of different lengths. When the sound waves hit these stereocillia. it changes the membrane potency of the hair cell due to the mechanical emphasis. The whole procedure is mechanical and the motion of stereocillia. which creates the membrane potency. is transported to the encephalon via nervousnesss and is perceived as sound. Touch: This includes feeling many different factors like force per unit area temperature and hurting. Sense of touch is non really good understood. It is thought that the sense of touch is processed by hurting processing centres in the encephalon and the spinal cord. The receptors. which sense this. are called nocireceptors. A survey of spicy nutrient and how it is perceived provided penetration into the apprehension of the sense of touch. It was determined that capsaicin receptors when activated open up cation channels taking to membrane possible and a nervus urge in generated. Mentions Jermey M Berg. John LTymokzo. Lupert Stryer. ( 2012 ) . Centripetal systems Biochemistry ( 7th ed. ) . New York: W. H. Freeman and Company.