Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Microorganism Responsible for the Disease of Jake Essay

Microorganism Responsible for the Disease of Jake - Essay Example He also observed that C. tetani can be grown only in the absence of oxygen. He could also ascertain that bacteria do not spread to other organs and tissues rather remain at the place where they are injected into the body. C. tetani release two toxins namely tetanospasmin and tetanolysin. The role of tetanolysin is not very clear; however, it has been found that the toxin called tetanospasmin is the main culprit behind the disease. (Guilfoile 2008) In 1890, Danish scientist, Knud Faber, was successful in isolating tetanus toxin from C. tetani and noticed that toxins developed similar disease symptoms as found to be caused by infection with C. tetani. (Guilfoile 2008) Symptoms and Identification of Disease As per the case details, the blood test report from the lab mentions about the gram-positive rods in Jake's blood. Moreover, stiffness in the abdominal muscles and difficulty in swallowing are the two major symptoms that have surfaced. Jake reported that he was hurt and scratched his leg on scrap metal a week ago while skateboarding. The average period of incubation for tetanus spores is usually found to be 8 days though it could vary from 3 days to 3 weeks. Jake got a wound only a week back when he hurt his leg at the construction site and this incident is a potential cause for him getting infected with tetanus that is how most of the tetanus patients usually get infected. His eating at the local Mexican restaurant does not seem to be a cause for the current symptoms because none of his family members got affected or had any complaint so far of any kind. Jake is a healthy young man with no previous history of muscle stiffness or any nerve disease. Rabies too has somewhat similar symptoms such as difficulty in swallowing but it is ruled out because it is caused by a virus and blood report clearly shows the presence of Gram-positive rods. Bacterial Meningitis is also ruled out because it is a disease caused by Gram-negative bacteria. It is quite likely that Jack was infected with C. tetani bacterial spores when he hurt his leg with scrap metal. Spores got activated and developed into gram-positive bacteria. (Gram-Positive Bacteria 2011), The bacteria produce a powerful toxin called tetanospasmin that affects muscles. These spores are found in soil, faces, dust widely in the environment. Puncture wounds provide spores an easy entry into the human body. That is what seems to have happened in the case of Jake. Tetanus is not transmitted from person to person but acquired from the environment and Jake’s current history suggests so. Epidemiology and Risk Factors Tetanus is found to inflict people worldwide but damp and hot climates offer a fertile ground for the C. tetani to flourish. Its spores are widely found in the faces of animals such as dogs, rats, sheep and other cattle. Usually, spores get entry into the body through wounds and puncture. Widespread immunization in the U.S has made this disease a rarity with 50 or less numb of ca ses every year. Drug addicts are at high risk for tetanus. Source: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/surv-manual/chpt16-tetanus.pdf Between the period 2001 and 2008, out of the 233 cases of tetanus patients only 26 deaths were reported in the U.S including one case of neonatal death.

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Ageism Employment Discrimination

Ageism Employment Discrimination AGEISM AND EMPLOYMENT Social and economic controversies surrounding age discrimination by employers in the workplace is becoming a major social problem. For baby boomers reaching age 55 and over, research implies significant generational issues in terms of attitudes of the employer and society in general (Palamore, Branch, Harris, 2005). Previous studies demonstrate that age discrimination is stereotypical among hiring managers in the workplace and is a leading social problem for the aging population (Gringart, Helmes, Speelman, 2005). According to (Marshall, 2007) ageism in the workplace relates to the employer’s impression and evaluation of capabilities. Judgmental attitudes based upon a person’s aging appearance, as opposed to their potential, is covert discrimination. Waller (2006) presents an interesting perspective of inequity and ageism the harassment by employers to persons over 55. Waller implies that employers face the same liabilities and legal consequences as that of discrimina tion by â€Å"race, sex, disability, sexual orientation, religion, or beliefs† (Waller, 2006 p. 33). Ageism as a psychosocial problem is detrimental to the emotional and mental well being of the persons experiencing discrimination in the workplace (Marshall, 2007). The population over the age of 50 faces significant vulnerability in the workplace where skilled workers are at a greater risk of termination than the unskilled younger worker (Roscigno et al., 2007). Ageism affects those approaching retirement age, persons 50 and over, who are not physically or mentally prepared for retirement. This premature event is demoralizing to persons who spent a lifetime committed to their no-longer-needed professional experience. It appears that policy makers lack consideration for the over 50-population and allow loopholes for the employers by unclear discrimination laws and regulations. MacGregor (2006) summarizes another factor of ageism in the workplace, the initiation, and enforcement of early retirement by offering incentives. If initiatives do not elicit early retirement, demoted status frequently leaves the persons with no alternative other than forced early retirement. Economic, social, financial, and stereotypical attitudes toward the aging workforce needs reevaluation by corporate America as the labor force of the aging population will soon exceed the younger labor force (Goldberg, 2000). The hypothesis of this study describes the profound affects of discrimination and displacement of person over 55 years of age in the workplace. Evidence finds that attitudes of ageism are a widespread dilemma, which is increasing the vulnerability of future generations in the workplace environment (Goldberg, 2000). The number of baby boomers reaching retirement age in the near future may change the attitudes about the graying workforce from a social and economic perspective (Wan, Sengupta, Velkoff, DeBArros, 2005). This study addresses unemployment and ageism issues of baby boomers in the state of New Hampshire, which compromises 30 percent of its population (Angiropolis, 2008). Hypotheses Review of current and past research provides empirical evidence, in conjunction with statistical trends presented by the New Hampshire Employment Security and Department of Labor (Angiropolis, 2008). This experimental study hopes to validate the presence of age discrimination, eliminating gender characteristics and hiring inequity, in New Hampshire. According to previous studies, age definitely played a role in hiring determination. Globalization of age discrimination affects society from a generational and economic viewpoint. Since the dilemma of increasing aging baby boomers area, a major economic portion of the workforce appears through previous literature as an ongoing social problem. Literature is a vital feature of this research study for the validation and emphasis of ageism as a growing social problem in the workplace. Therefore, a research survey identifying and validating the seriousness of ageism in the workplace, including New Hampshire is the hypotheses of this study. Review of Literature and Theories Rix, (2005) reports that â€Å"nearly 1.7 million workers aged 55 and older were displaced from their jobs between January 2001 and December 2003† (p. 4). Re-employment for many exceeds a period of 4-5 months. For example, the Employment Security Commission in Manchester, New Hampshire confirms the average unemployment compensation is between 20-26 weeks and unemployment benefits do not exceed a 26-week period (Asselin, A., personal communication, January 16, 2008). Ageism, reorganization, and lay-offs all displace employees. Often persons are over qualified, yet ageism appears to discourage hiring managers, although employers carefully avoid the topic of age due to discrimination laws and fears of lawsuits. Experienced workers in New Hampshire, include persons with academic degrees, years of vocational training, and life skills (Asselin, A., personal communication, January 16, 2008). In the past few years, statistics show an increase for persons over age 55 receiving unemploy ment in New Hampshire (Angiropolis, 2008). Ageism in the workplace is a global problem—one that exists in countries and states other than New Hampshire. Mandatory retirement, abolished in the United States in 1996 as part of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA, 1996), is not part of employment policy for Canadians. They still struggle with legislation to end age discrimination of persons from age 60-65. MacGregor (2005/2006) reports mandatory retirement is an ongoing political and social problem for the aging Canadian population. Additional empirical studies of the Australian aging population suggest inequity and stereotypical attitudes of hiring older adults (MacGregor 2005/2006). From a global perspective, this does not appear to be a consideration for hiring managers—ageism seems to take precedence over knowledge in the hiring decision. Gringart et al. (2005, as cited by Bittman, Flick, Rice, 2001) refer to a study that sampled â€Å"1007 hiring decision- makers† (Gringart et al., p. 88) and found most hiring managers preferred younger employees. Managers preferred training younger employees as opposed to older employees since stereotypically younger persons are purportedly more capable of learning. A similar study conducted in the United States indicated similar results of stereotypical attitudes towards ageism by hiring managers (Bendick, Jackson, Wall, 1999, as cited by Gringart et al., 2005). Recent research focuses on interaction, stereotypical aspects, and corporate expenditures influencing age discrimination in the workplace (Rosecigno, Mong, Byron, Tester, 2007). Considering previous research findings the existence of ageism and discrimination, is it plausible that societal views about aging are generational in nature, and in turn, influence attitudes of employers? Are the growing cultural differences likely to affect future generations if attitudes do not change? Vincent (2005) summarizes generational society as being a culture that is no longer specific to the younger generations; it includes persons transitioning from work to retirement. Where the over-55 population is forced into early retirement by employers, it appears from a social, political, and legal viewpoint to validate and reinforce stereotypical attitudes about this population. These behaviors present a growing problem and require reevaluation if indeed this is an increasing social problem.   For pers ons aged 55 and older forced into early retirement, discouragement and emotional issues generally escalate healthcare costs due to lack of income potential and isolation from mainstream society. In addition, Gringart et al. (2005) suggests early or forced retirement is a significant loss to the younger generation since the older, more experienced, and knowledgeable employee is no longer present to share the wisdom of experience and influence. What example is society teaching the younger generation about biases prejudices of the older population, and their future in the workplace? The astronomical numbers of over 55 workers forced to retire in 1999, â€Å"5.4 million† (Palamore et al., 2005, p. 82), indicates ageism is a growing issue in our society. Such loss of resources affects the economy and society in general and presents a negative view of aging. Every citizen needs to be concerned on the topic of ageism and discrimination in the workplace since future predictions imply the number of baby boomers reaching full retirement age will double within the next decade (Nelson 2005). The population will shift to a â€Å"Graying America† (Nelson, 2005, p. 218). Undo ubtedly, this shift will dramatically influence all aspects of society, including the aging population in New Hampshire. The New Hampshire Employment Security and Department of Labor reports the aging population of unemployed workers is continually increasing (Angiropolis, 2008). In 2004, the Department of Labor in New Hampshire reported a total of 6,901 displaced workers 3,450 males, and 2,641 females. Totaling 18 percent unemployed between the ages of 45-54 and 14 percent between the ages of 55-64 total claims for both groups totaled 4,426 unemployed persons that filed claims, the total for that year 28,000 claims. Current data of unemployment claims indicate a continuum of increase in 2006 reported claims of 6,592, in 2007, 7,536 claims reported. In addition, to the overall increase from 27,612 in 2006 to 35,609 in 2007 an increase of 7,609 between 2004 and 2007 (Angiropolis, 2008). Data of age groups for 2007, yet published, the significance of percentages of unemployed between ages 45-64 in past years indicates 32% of citizens in New Hampshire (Angiropolis, 2008). Previous data-reflecting ageism i n of displaced workers in New Hampshire requires further research in order to determine if there is a relationship between qualities and characteristics of hiring managers to either eliminate or reinforce ageism discrimination. Methods Participants A research study is questionnaires in the form of a survey of 400 random businesses in New Hampshire area to measure the characteristics and capabilities of potential employees. The qualifying participants must be owners, and or hiring managers. Materials and Procedure The research experiment is a self-designed survey to be conducted by telephone to participants. Utilizing the method of a Likert scale the survey seeks to ask hiring manager to list the most significant qualities when deciding to hire persons in their organization or company. This survey asks the participants to rank in order of their comfort level in job applicant capacity; the survey hopes to indicate stereotypical preferences of hiring employees by decision-makers (see Appendix 1). Participating hiring managers will be told the survey is voluntary in nature. If they chose to respond to this study of various decision-making attributes of hiring personal. Participants will also be told of the purpose of this survey instrument (a) educating future generations on how to prepare for employment, (b) the significant qualities, and characteristics that hiring managers are seeking. In addition, this instrument serves and an educational process of teaching the younger generation how to prepare for retirement at an early age. Since ageism appears to be a global issue with emphasis influencing stereotypical attitudes and assumptions of the aging workforce. Future projections of ageism as a deterrent when persons reaching over age 55 become unemployed and are unable to re-enter the workforce. Implications Limitations of the survey are primarily time constraints for this research study. In addition, sample size of respondents may not provided the results this experiment hopes to conclude in terms of stereotypical characteristics of decision-making by hiring managers. Moreover, some of the questions regarding age and gender may not be accurately disclosed by responding participants. Validity of this research is dependent upon honest factual responses by hiring-managers and the designer of the survey. The possibility that the responses are questioned since the validity of responses relies solely on the designer applies to the ethical principles of this researcher and study. A further limitation of this experiment requires permission from the ethics committee of the State Board of Psychologist in New Hampshire prior to the survey’s completion. Discussion Past research implies the validity of discrimination for persons over age 55, including premature termination and difficulty with re-employment. Research exemplifies the existence of negative ageism, yet little research questions the opinions of over 50 persons experiencing the dilemma of forced retirement and the rejection associated with developmental milestones of aging. As a diverse society where prejudices and biases exist from a cultural viewpoint, ageism ranks as a minority group. Perhaps further research addressing methods of creating societal change regarding cultural biases and prejudices can influence negativity around aging and employment. Several articles from peer-review journals provide significant empirical evidence of stereotypical negativity from employers in the workforce. In addition, a conversation with an employee from Employment Security Commission in Manchester, New Hampshire, regarding displaced persons aged 50 and over. Ms. Asselin provided written consent to use specific portions of this conversation for the use of this study. Ms. Asselin, reported, â€Å"I see older client’s everyday, which are more than qualified for positions, and are not employed by the hiring managers.† Most report they are over qualified; several persons are 50 and over. When directly asked the question of age discrimination, she states, â€Å"Definitely, we see this all the time, even though the employers do not mention age† (Asselin, A., personal communication, January 16, 2008). The null hypothesis (Ho) of business owners in New Hampshire is dependent upon the results of the survey data. In terms of validating if ageism characteristics plays a significant role in employer decision-making during the interview process. Thus, validating previous research that ageism is a global social problem. The argument that New Hampshire’s unemployed persons between the ages of 45-60 having difficulties re-entering the workforce is the premises of this research. In addition, if the survey concludes hiring managers display covert discrimination then further research of all New Hampshire business managers may indicate change is needed regarding attitudes towards ageism in the workplace. New Hampshire’s workforce is a fraction of the problem considering past research of age discrimination, research provides data that ageism is a global problem, that will likely increase in the next decade if attitudes do not change (Nelson, 2005). The reality and beliefs of this society indicates the capacity of older workers over age 55 lacks the ability of adequately training capacity. Performance decreases, or often miss work because of illness categorizes a culture of persons (Goldberg, 2000). This assumption and attitude stereotypically tries to diminish a population of persons by stigmatizing ageism. Does this mean that after age 55 and over, the quality of life, experience that this generation of persons provided for many years forced into early retirement and becomes no longer useful to society? Considering the baby boomer population will be the majority of the workforce within the next decade what affect will this impose on society if diminished from the workforce? Directions for the future Although discrimination is illegal, further research of attitudes of hiring managers can predict the affects age discrimination on future generations, the economy, and the healthcare system in New Hampshire. Differentiating whether ageism and discrimination are stereotypical in New Hampshire, is dependent upon the results of the survey. Since this experiment includes a sample of 400 of the potentially 100 plus hiring managers in New Hampshire. Future studies of all business owners, and or hiring managers may provide data that are more significant. More importantly is examining the assumptions that persons over age 55 are incapable of adequate productivity by hiring managers; otherwise, future generations will face the same deterrent attitude if change does not occur. Ultimately, everyone ages, changes in employment policies, decreasing age discrimination, for future generations is imperative. Since research supports ageism in the workforce appears to be a neglected social problem requiring further research of a marginalized population. Appendix 1 Survey Questionnaire Participant’s response indicated by circling one of the selections below, by the designer of the survey. 1. Education level: (a) High school diploma, (b) Some college (c) College graduates (d) Education level does not matter 2. Experience: (a) 1-5 years (b) 6-10 years (c) 11-20 years (d) prefer to conduct your own training. 3. Gender: Males (a) age 21-30 (b) age 31-40 (c) age 41-51 (d) age 51-60 (e) over 60 (f)no preferences Gender: Females (a) age 21-30 (b) age 31-40 (c) age 41-51 (d) age 51-60 (e) over 60 (f)no preferences 4. Appearance: (a) significant (b) somewhat significant (c) little significances (d) no significance 5. Technical ability: (a) significant (b) somewhat significant (c) little significances (d) no significance 6. Assimilation into the team: (a) significant (b) somewhat significant (c) little significances (d) no significance 7. Ability to work independently: (a) significant (b) somewhat significant (c) little significances (d) no significance 8. Professional standards: (a) significant (b) somewhat significant (c) little significances (d) no significance 9. Energy levels: (a) significant (b) somewhat significant (c) little significances (d) no significance 10. Productive peer relationships: (a) significant (b) somewhat significant (c) little significances (d) no significance References Angiropolis, M. (2008). New Hampshire Employment Securitys Economic and Labor Market Information Bureau. New Hampshire Economic Conditions, 108 (1) Retrieved January 16, 2008, from Bittman, M., Flick, M., Rice, J. (2001). A survey of employers in a high growth industry. Social Policy Research Center: the Recruitment of Older Austrailian Workers. Gringhart, F., Helmes, E., Speelman, C. P. (2005). [Exploring attitudes toward older workers among Austrailain employers. Journal of Aging and Social Policy, 17(3), 85-103. Goldberg, B. (2000). Age Works What Corporate America Must Do to Survive the Graying of the Workforce. New York: The Free Press. MacGregor, D. (2005/​2006). Yes, right to work is fundamental, even for people over 65. Monitor: Economic, Social, and Environmental Perspectives, 12(7), 1-24. Marshall, V. W. (2007). Advancing the sociology of ageism. Social Forces, 86(1), 257-264. Nelson, T. D. (2005). Ageism: Prejudice against our feared future self. Journal of Social Issues, 61(2), 207-221. Palamore, E. B., Branch, L., Harris, Diana. (2005). Cost of ageism. Encyclopedia of Ageism, 80-83. Reio, , Jr. T. G., Sanders-Reio, J. (1999). Combating workplace ageism. Adult Learning, 11(1), 10. References Rix, S. E. (2005). Update on the older worker: 2004 (Public Policy Institute, pp. 1-4). Washington, DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Roscigno, V. J., Mong, S., Byron, R., Tester, G. (2007). Age discrimination, social closure, and employment. Social Forces, 86(1), 332-334. The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunitiy Commission. (1997). The Age Discrimination In Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA). In Title VII of The Civil Rights Act of 1967 (Section 621, pp. Pub.-L 101-433). Washington, DC: Department of Labor and the Department of Justice, U.S. Vincent, J. A. (2005). Understanding generations: Political economy and culture in an ageing society. The British Journal of Social Psychology, 50(4), 579-599 Waller, C. (2006). Outlawing age discrimination: 2006. Engineering Management, 16(4), 32-33. Wan, H., Sengupta, M., Velkoff, V. A., DeBArros, K. A. (2005). U.S. Census Bureau. In Current Population Report (65+ In the United States, pp. 23-209). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Attachment and Monogamy as Studied in People and Rodents :: Biology Essays Research Papers

Attachment and Monogamy as Studied in People and Rodents "It had to be you, it had to be you I wandered around, and finally found - the somebody who Could make me be true, and could make me be blue And even be glad, just to be sad - thinking of you." -Written by Gus Kahn and Isham Jones (10) The mystery of monogamy has puzzled the human race for a long time. Monogamy is usually reasoned to be the result of an attachment that is strong enough to make someone be true to their loved one. Writers, artists, great lovers, the broken-hearted, and many other people, have entertained the question: if there is such a thing as monogamy, what is responsible for it? Recently scientists have started to seriously ponder the same question. Within the past few years exciting studies and experiments have been done with the intent to delve into this complicated question, which ultimately pertains to love. In 1999, scientists at Emory University led experiments with voles and mice to study monogamy. (1) In 2000, scientists from the University College of London studied the brain activity in a group of people who were "truly, deeply and madly in love" entitled The Neural Basis of Romantic Love. (2) Although no conclusions can be reached, many interesting observations are being made about mono gamy and romantic attachment. Prairie voles are monogamous creatures, so much that eighty percent of the time males refuse to mate with any vole other than their first mate, and both parents tend to their offspring. (3) Montane voles, who are a very closely related species to prairie voles, are polygamous. (4) Both female and male montane voles leave each other and their offspring after mating. "Prairie voles spend more than 50% of the time in close physical contact with each other, whereas montane voles spend less than 5% of the time in close proximity to other individuals." (5) After studying the social patters of other species of voles, like pine and meadow voles, it is apparent that two neuropeptides are responsible for the difference in social interaction. (4) Oxytocin, in females, and vasopressin, in males are the two chemicals which help prairie voles to be monogamous. (4) These same chemicals are present in montane voles, but do not have the same effect. (5) Oxytocin and vasopressin are released after the prairie voles mate, so that they form an "attachment." (1)

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Corporate Strategies to Hedge Commodity Price Risks Applying

Table of contents List of abbreviationsIII List of figuresIII List of tablesIII 1Introduction1 1. 1Problem and objective1 1. 2Structure of this paper1 2Background Information2 2. 1Definitions of fundamental terms2 2. 2Commodity price risk in different firms2 3Explanation of derivatives3 3. 1Options3 3. 2Futures4 3. 3Forwards6 3. 4Swaps6 4Hedging strategies with derivatives7 4. 1Hedging with options7 4. 2Hedging with futures7 4. 3Hedging with forwards8 4. 4Hedging with swaps8 5Pros and cons of hedging strategies with derivatives8 5. 1Pros and cons of options9 5. Pros and cons of futures9 5. 3Pros and cons of forwards10 5. 4Pros and cons of swaps10 6Practical example of corporate commodity price risk hedging10 6. 1Introduction on firm's practical hedging strategy10 6. 2Analysis on this strategy11 7Summary12 Appendix13 Appendix 1: Amounts outstanding of over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives by risk category and instrument——in billions of US dollar13 Appendix 2: Derivatives fi nancial instruments traded on organized exchanges by instrument and location——in billions of US dollar14 Bibliography15 Internet Source16 List of abbreviations CHClearing HouseIMInitial Margin MBMargin Balance MM NMaintenance Margin No OTCOver The Count VM YVariation Margin Yes List of figures Figure 1: Structure of this paper2 Figure 2: P of each option position4 Figure 3: Flow chart of marking-to-market process5 Figure 4: P of each future position6 Figure 5: Hedging model on fuel oil of Air China11 List of tables Table 1: Summary for 4 option positions4 Table 2: Summary for future positions6 Table 3: Summary for 4 derivatives9 1Introduction 1. 1Problem and objective The risk of commodity price is a ferocious topic in corporate operation.Corporate profit is equal to total revenue minus total cost. For firms, because of the high volatility on commodity price, their inputs and outputs relating to commodity are unpredictable. As a consequence corporate profit will be imm ensely volatile, which will possibly lead the firm to go bankruptcy if no any preventive actions are taken. For example, producers of commodities probably need to assume unexpected losses, when the price of outputs goes down or the price of necessary raw materials goes up. The situations are similar to wholesale buyers, retailers, exporters and even governments.Volatility of commodities price has great impacts on corporate daily operation. The objective of this term paper is to introduce derivative hedging strategies for corporate managers to reduce or even eliminate future unpredictability, mainly from the perspectives of the role commodity price risks play, what the typical derivative instruments are, where and how to apply these different derivatives in terms of hedging principles thereof, and both advantages and disadvantages when applying each derivative in real business transactions. 1. Structure of this paper Firstly, this term paper highlights problems existing in real world . Secondly, it introduces advanced derivatives theory that can be applied to solve these problems. Thirdly, specific details on the theory will be presented, including explanation, application, as well as pros and cons of each derivative instrument. Then, an example is analyzed to show how companies apply derivatives to hedge commodity risks practically. Last is a summary of this term paper. Following figure shows the body of this paper. 2Background Information 2. Definitions of fundamental terms In financial markets derivative is a contract or security whose value is derived from the value of other more basic underlying variables . One of its most important functions is hedging. In corporate operation, hedging is to secure the companies against potential loss caused by variable risks that arise in international market, such as the commodity price risks. In this paper, commodity means any tangible goods or raw materials that may be sold or traded in the markets, such as energy, gold , or agricultural products. 2. Commodity price risk in different firms Volatility of commodities price influences firms’ daily operation significantly. Producers of commodities, such as farms, oil producers, mining companies, face price risk on output. Wholesalers and retailers, face price risk during the time period from buying from suppliers and selling to customers. Exporters, face the same price risk as well as currency exchange risk. And governments face price and yield risks generating from tax revenues that depend on firms’ operational conditions. 3Explanation of derivativesDerivatives are traded in exchange-traded markets and over-the-counter markets. (See recent derivatives transaction status in appendix 1 and appendix 2. ) Notably, exchange-traded derivatives are default risk free and liquid. However over-the-counter traded derivatives are the opposite. 3. 1Options An option is the contract that gives the buyer the right but not obligation to buy (call option ) or sell (put option) an underlying asset at a predetermined price (exercise price) for certain quantity during a fixed period of time (maturity).The buyer of the option pays a particular amount of money (option premium) to the seller to buy a right whereby he can decide whether or not to exercise this option, simultaneously the seller has the obligation to perform if the buyer exercises the option. European options only can be exercised on expiration day, and American options can be exercised at any time before maturity. The buyer of the call option is named long call, while the seller of the call option is named short call. Similarly, the buyer of the put option is named long put, while the seller of the put option is named short put.In commodity market, underlying of commodity option is a commodity, such as oil, wheat, or gold. Commodity options are both exchanges-traded and OTC traded. Following figure shows P of each option. Following table is the summary for these 4 option po sitions. Table 1: Summary for 4 option positions Market price expectationMaximum profitMaximum lossBreakeven point Long callupunlimitedoption premiumexercise price + option premium Short calldown or stableoption premiumunlimitedexercise price + option premium Long putdownexercise price – option premiumoption premiumexercise price – option premium Short putup or stableoption remiumexercise price – option premiumexercise price – option premium Source: author’s own. 3. 2Futures A future is a contract between two parties to buy or sell a specified amount of asset at a specified time period in the future for a certain price. Normally there are two types of futures, commodity futures whose underlying are commodities and financial futures whose underlying are financial assets. They are highly standardized, regulated, and traded in exchange markets with highly liquid and default risk free property. Because of the marking-to-market process, at maturity the settling price is the spot price at expiration date with profit gaining or loss paying from a margin account, which indirectly makes the effective bargain price equal to the predetermined price in the future contract. Notably, to ensure high liquidity of futures, marking-to-market process plays a significant role. The following figure shows the marking-to-market process. Generally there are two alternative ways at maturity to settle futures, either by cash or by actual delivery of underlying, which is clearly defined by futures exchange.Following figure and table show the details of a future. Table 2: Summary for future positions ?Maximum profitMaximum lossBreakeven point Long positionunlimitedexercise pricespot price + cost of carry Short positionexercise priceunlimitedspot price + cost of carry Source: author’s own. 3. 3Forwards A forward contract is a customized and over-the-counter agreement to buy or sell an asset at a specified time in the future for a specified price, where a long position has the obligation to buy and a short position has the obligation to sell. Compared with futures, no marking-to-market process are required.Counterparties can negotiate with each about the parameters of the contract. As a result, a firm who wants to make forward contract needs to find the counterparty by itself. 3. 4Swaps A swap is a customized and over-the-counter agreement to exchange a series of specified assets periodically in the future. Normally the counterparties of a swap contract are a large institution such as a bank and a company. Basically, we can view a swap as a complicated forward. Except currency swaps, counterparties just need to pay the differences between the cash flow they should exchange. Because swaps are bespoken as a result they are less liquid.There are commodity swaps, interest rate swaps and currency swaps. Interest rate swaps is an agreement of two counterparties to change fixed interest and floating interest on predefined nominal pr incipal in the future periodically. Commodity swaps normally vary tremendously among different markets. In a currency swap, counterparties change same value of different currencies in inception and termination, where the exchange rate of the tow currencies depends on the negotiation of counterparties. 4Hedging strategies with derivatives This chapter will focus on the principles of hedging strategies on commodities. . 1Hedging with options If a trader wants to procure a commodity with high volatile price, he can buy a commodity call option to hedge the price risk of going up. Similarly, if a company wants to sell a commodity product, it can buy a long put to hedge the price risk of going down. In practice, because investors want to bet more precisely on the future price of the underlying, and hedgers with long positions want to save option premiums, a few combinations of options come out, such as a long call and a short put with identical parameters except the different strike price . 4. 2Hedging with futuresWhen the objective of a commodity trader wants to neutralize the price risk as far as possible, usually he will choose to take a position on a future on commodity. A hedger who already owns a commodity asset or doesn‘t own right now but will at some future time expecting to sell it in the future without assuming any price risk, he can apple future hedging strategy to enter into a short position to become a short. Likewise, a hedger who has to buy a certain commodity asset in the future and wants to lock in spot price immediately, he can apply a future to enter into a long position to become a long. . 3Hedging with forwards The principles of hedging strategy with forwards are similar with futures'. Whether to use futures or forwards depends on different requirements. Generally, financial assets investors who need high liquidity prefer to choose futures, while commodity investors such as producers who need high customization prefer to choose forwards. 4 . 4Hedging with swaps When investors want to hedge risks of interest rates, currencies, or commodities, they can use swaps. In gold swaps, counterparties change fixed lease rate with variable lease rate.In swaps on base metals, counterparties change fixed metal price with average price of near dated metal future. In oil swaps, counterparties change fixed West Taxes Intermediate (WTI is a benchmark in oil price) price with average price of near dated WTI future. 5Pros and cons of hedging strategies with derivatives The following integrated summary of these derivatives depending on pervious analysis makes systematic comparisons. (The options here are exchanged-traded European options) Table 3: Summary for 4 derivatives SUMMERY OF DERIVATIVES FOR GENERAL TYPES OptionsFuturesForwardsSwapsTypes of contractstandardizedstandardizedcustomizedcustomized Settlementscash and deliverymost cash and few deliverydeliverydepends on individuals Trading marketExchange tradedExchange tradedOTCOTC Liqu idityhighhighlowlow Marketing-to-marginnorequirednono Time of settlementmaturitydailymaturityperiodically Initial investmentoption premiuminitial margin nodepends Default risk assumed byClearing houseclearinghouseBoth partiesBoth parties ProsDefault risk free & liquiditycustomization & no initial investment Consinitial investment & inflexibledefault risk for both party & illiquidity Source: author’s own. . 1Pros and cons of options The pros of options are obvious. Firstly, they have no risk to assume more loss than premium but have possibility to get unlimited potential profit. Secondly exchanged-traded options are highly liquid and OTC traded options are flexible. However, the cons of options are also explicit, such as the difficulty to decide when to enter into a long position.Because buying an option needs to pay option premium, if the spot price cannot go above (for a long call) or go below (for a long put) the breakeven point the hedger will suffer a loss, and depends on statistics the possibility of a long position to lose is about 66%. 5. 2Pros and cons of futures It definitely makes sense for most companies whose majors are in businesses but not professional in forecasting the price of commodities price volatility, which can make them pay more attention on their core competences instead of fearing about volatile price.Nonetheless, taking neutralized strategies make hedgers give up the possibility of both profit and loss. Moreover, instead of hedging risks by companies, shareholders can hedge themselves according to their preferences. Additionally, if other competitors of the same industry don’t apply hedging strategies, in fact, it is the hedging company itself that assumes risks, because competitive pressures are the same for other all competitors but different for the hedging company its own. 5. 3Pros and cons of forwards Basic pros and cons have been listed in the table in front of this chapter.Generally, compared to futures, the most explicit pro is that forwards are highly customized and therefore the con is that they are hardly liquid. 5. 4Pros and cons of swaps Basic pros and cons have been listed in the table in front of this chapter. Gernally, compared to futures and forwards the most precise pros is that both counterparties could reap benefits from a swap, such as in a currency swap where a firm with a low rate may get a cheaper loan as other firms with high rates, and the counterparty may get a payment as compensation.However the corresponding cons is that counterparty may need to pay commision to intermediary, because it is difficult to find an appropriate counterparty by itself. 6Practical example of corporate commodity price risk hedging 6. 1Introduction on firm's practical hedging strategy Air China is an airline company, whose cost of fuel oil occupies 44. 75% of total revenue in 2008. To hedge the fuel oil price risk, Air China bought a call option with strike K1, meanwhile sold a put option with st rike K2, where K1

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Coastal management

THE LOBBY and several bedrooms parted company with the Holbeck Hall Hotel yesterday, leaving half of the four-star establishment behind. Engineers said heavy rain this spring after several dry summers was the probable cause of the landslip, which has sent sections of the hotel toppling into the North Sea. The north-east wing of the 30-bedroom hotel collapsed into Scarborough's South Bay on Saturday night. Guests had been evacuated early on Friday after huge cracks appeared overnight. The rest of the east wing gave way yesterday, leaving the hotel barely half intact, but what remains is likely to be demolished. Geologists say the east Yorkshire coast, with it's steep clay cliffs, has always been vulnerable. South of Scarborough, the 40-mile stretch of cliffs of Holderness is the fastest-eroding coastline in Europe and is experiencing the worst land-slips for 40 years. But Mr Michael Clements, director of technical services for Scarborough council, said sea erosion was not a factor in the Holbeck landslip. The cliffs below the hotel are protected at their base by a sea wall. The main problem, he said, was probably heavy rain which penetrated layers of sand and gravel in the cliffs, lubricating the clay which had cracked in hot weather. â€Å"There is a long history of cliff movements in the area,† Mr Clements said. â€Å"According to local records, the first Scarborough spa was carried away by a landslide in 1770, while the Holbeck cliffs suffered a major slip in 1912. Cliff stabilisation schemes were carried out further north at Whitby in the 1980's and at Robin Hood's Bay in the 1970's. In the fishing village of Staives, the breakwaters were recently raised. Pressure for further protection has run up against the obstacle of expense. â€Å"The cost of protecting these cliffs is phenomenal.† Mr Clements said. â€Å"The work at Whitby cost à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½3.4 million.† Most developed areas around Scarborough have seawalls but this is not the case further south, where Mr Eddie Knapp, principal engineer of Holderness council, said there had been â€Å"unusually large and particularly worrying† land losses over the past six months. â€Å"The average rate of erosion is 6ft a year but this year it has been up to 65ft in places,† Mr Knapp said. At Skirlington, 65ft of land has recently fallen into the sea, carrying away 23 bases at a caravan park, while 70ft of land has gone at Aldbrough caravan park, leaving 15ft of unfenced land before a 60ft drop into the sea. A family living in a chalet at Atwick, near Hornsea, was rehoused when the cliff edge came perilously close. Mrs Sue Earle, chairman of the Holderness Coast Protection Committee, is to outline local concerns in talks at the Agriculture Ministry today. Mrs Earle, whose farm-house is 30ft from the cliff edge at Cowden, said: â€Å"Now that this has happened in a nationally-known resort, I hope it will help to bring the issue out into the open. Daily Telegraph, 7.6.93 South Coast subsiding as the sea level rises By Christine McGourty, Technology Correspondent PART of the south coast of England is sinking at a rate of almost an inch every five years, according to new research. The find comes from an analysis of tidal measurement data from 1962 until about 1985 by Portsmouth University researchers. The higher tide measurements were thought to be a combination of subsidence and rising sea levels. Discovery of the subsidence à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ from Portsmouth to Newhaven à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ follows evidence from around the world that global sea levels have risen by four to six inches over the past 100 years. The subsidence will add to the problems expected from the sea level rise associated with global warming. Sea levels on the south coast are expected to rise by at least eight inches by 2050. Dr Janet Hooke, director of the university's river and coastal environment research group, said: â€Å"Most previous studies showed the subsidence was confined to East Anglia. This is the first analysis to show that parts of the south coast may be subsiding too. The movement may have origins back in the last ice age.† Malcolm Bray, one of the researchers, said at the Institute of British Geographers' annual conference in Nottingham: â€Å"It seems frightening. â€Å"What we're doing now is to work out what it means for the local authorities affected. â€Å"We can't stop flooding à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ that's an act of God à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ but we may be able to minimise the impact through coherent local and regional strategies. â€Å"We need to study the coast over longer distances and look slightly further into the future to stop authorities doing something that could have detrimental effects on their neighbours. â€Å"Our research shows that some parts of the coast are independent but many parts are interconnected.† They found the stretch from Lyme Regis to Newhaven could be divided naturally into nine â€Å"coastal cells†. Dr Hooke said: â€Å"Some preventative measures need to be taken now while the opportunity is there. â€Å"We don't want to see building on very vulnerable zones, which could just create problems for the future with flooding and erosion. â€Å"Plans may be needed to manage conservation of wetlands which are particularly vulnerable.† The researchers welcomed the Government's strategy for coastline management, announced last October, and said that more coherent analysis of longer stretches of coastline were needed all around the country. * Navy beans, from which baked beans are produced, could be grown in England if the global temperature rises as predicted in the next century, according to a study. Researchers at Coventry University and Horticultural Research International have found that navy beans could be grown in Hampshire, East and West Sussex and Kent if the temperature rose by just 0.5C in the next century. The climate is too cold at present for navy bean crops and most are imported from America and Canada. Daily Telegraph 8.1.94 Erosion-hit resorts pin hopes on reef of tyres By Richard Spencer and Lynda Murdin RESIDENTS along the fastest eroding coastline in Europe are hoping a plan to dump millions of tyres in the sea as a protective reef will be given the go-ahead by the Government. Villages and the resorts of Withernsea and Hornsea on the Holderness coast in Humberside are in danger of slowly falling into the sea. If the Ministry of Agriculture grants a licence for the trial tyre-reef scheme, it could lead to one of the most ambitious coastal engineering projects in Europe since the Dutch reclaimed its polders from the other side of the North Sea. The area from Hull to the low, muddy cliffs of the Humberside coast has always suffered erosion. Spurn Head, the spit of land which juts out into the Humber estuary, has been washed away and re-formed six times in recorded history, while many villages already lie underwater. But, in the past five years, the pace of change has rapidly increased. Some homes have been abandoned and farmers are seeking compensation for loss of land and buildings. The Humberside trial would submerge a bank of 1.5 million compressed tyres bound with nylon and concrete into a tangle of ropes six or seven metres high, 110 metres long and 60 metres wide. Placed up to 1,000 metres offshore, it would be tested for its stability, effects on local currents and pollution. If it worked, the full scheme could place more than a billion tyres in seven, two-kilometre long strips all the way up the coast. Humberside County Council accepts that such an ambitious project is unlikely to go ahead quickly – possibly not even this decade. In the meantime, the coast depends on smaller schemes under the supervision of Holderness Borough Council. The most recent, at the village of Mappleton, was opened with fanfares four years ago but, while it has saved the village, it has also caused resentment. Other villages say that it has accelerated the rate of erosion elsewhere by preventing the protective sand that drifts down the coast from reaching the beaches. It raised expectations that other schemes could be put in place, hopes the Government dashed in 1993 with a review of policy imposing new environmental and financial demands. The Department of the Environment is expected shortly to approve a controversial à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½4.5 million, 1,000-metre sea wall around the North Sea gas terminal run by BP and British Gas near Easington. A full plan, which would also have protected the village, was turned down by the department. Mr Robin Taylor, Holderness's director of development, said this appeared to be because under the new guidelines schemes had to prove not just â€Å"cost-beneficial† but to be in the national interest. Saving gas supplies probably was, saving villages not. Mr Ambrose Larkham, who owns the Easington Beach Caravan and Leisure Park, is demanding a public inquiry. â€Å"The ludicrous thing is it is almost as cheap to build 1,600 metres while the equipment's there as it is 1,000,† he said. Mr Taylor said: â€Å"The question of why we are protecting the terminals and not the people of the village is likely to become very controversial. The issue is whether we should be protecting multinational companies and not our own residents.† But Mr Geoffrey Twizell, terminal manager for British Gas and himself a resident, said: â€Å"We are happy to contribute to any scheme that meets everyone's aspirations. Nobody would be talking about any protection at all for Easington if it weren't for the gas terminals here.† Daily Telegraph 1.4.95 Essex drops its guard to let nature take its course By A J McIlroy A TACTICAL retreat could be the answer to coastal erosion on the Essex coast, Government engineers have decided. Contractors from the Ministry of Agriculture and English Nature yesterday lowered the sea wall to flood 21 hectares at Tollesbury Fleet on the Blackwater Estuary. The area is being restored to salt marshes intended to absorb the power of waves that have been pounding artificial sea defences. If the experiment succeeds it will be extended along the Blackwater and to other saltwater estuaries. Roy Hathaway, of the Ministry of Agriculture's flood and coastal defence division, said tracts of coastal marshes were lost when drainage engineers in the 17th and 18th Centuries built sea walls to reclaim land for farming. Now, as a result of the gradual rise in sea level, many of the hundreds of miles of sea wall are crumbling. These are costing millions of pounds to repair, a financial burden that is â€Å"becoming increasingly hard to justify†. He said that to encourage private landowners to accept coastal flooding, the Government had written a â€Å"saltmarsh option† into its set-aside programme, the European Union measure to take farmland out of production. In exchange for allowing their land to become inter-tidal again, farmers would receive à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½190 per hectare per year for grassland and à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½500 for arable land. The payments are guaranteed for 20 years. Mr Hathaway said the ministry was working with conservation groups to maximise the gain to wildlife by restoring the salt marshes. Daily Telegraph 5.8.95 SHORING UP THE COASTLINE By John Hodder THE PRETTY little Suffolk town of Woodbridge was snoozing under a cloudless sky, with a soft breeze taking the sting out of the sun. I gazed out over the placid surface of the River Deben. It was midday in midsummer and this was quiet, gentle England at its most benign – the sort of place, the sort of time that makes it hard to feel threatened by anything, let alone the forces of nature. Twenty-four hours later I was on the beach at Dunwich, 20 miles to the north. The conditions were not very different – the same blue sky and hot sun, cooled now by a rather more blustery wind coming off the sea. But here the threat felt very real – probably because here it is very real. Dunwich is at the mercy of the elements, as it has been down the centuries, and the cliffs just carry on crumbling. If the sea is left to its own devices over the next 70-odd years, the shoreline will retreat by about 200 metres. That, at least, is the experts'projection. Projections, of course, are not the same as firm predictions. But they underline what the problem is – in this case, chronic erosion. The first and obvious question is: â€Å"What can be done to stop it?† The second and much more taxing one is: â€Å"Should anything be done to stop it?† Neither question has an easy answer. If Dunwich is not simply to be abandoned to its fate, a difficult balance will have to be struck between its interest and those of its neighbours. Coastal protection is a tricky science. Nobody knows that better than Roy Stoddard. His title is senior engineer (coast protection) with the Suffolk Coastal District Council and it was to pick his brains that I had gone to Woodbridge. His job is to oversee the 30-mile stretch of coastline from Felixstowe to Southwold, an area whose sand and shingle beach is notoriously unstable when pounded by the waves of the North Sea. It has suffered grievously in a series of violent storms this century. The task of looking after it is now shared between the local authority and the National Rivers Authority (NRA), overseen by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF). They work closely together and their common enemy is the sea. The approach to coastal protection has shifted significantly over the past 20 years. â€Å"‘Fight against the sea' was the message until the 1970s,† says Stoddard. â€Å"Now we are not trying to fight against it so much as to work with it, using its peculiar ways to destroy its own energy.† That shift in approach is reflected in marked changes in the sort of barriers now being erected to stem the apparently relentless advance of the waves. As a result, the traditional beach scene is changing. For example, the solid sea walls built behind the beach – and the wide promenades that have accompanied them since Victorian times – are now out of favour. Walls merely repel the waves: they do nothing to reduce their speed or power, which is now recognised as the key to the successful preservation of the shor e. Instead, efforts are being concentrated on protecting and building up the beaches themselves. Similarly, a profusion of timber groynes jutting out at right angles into the sea – the time-honoured means of defence and a common sight along this coast – is seen as far less effective than a few large, rock-based structures shaped like fish-tails. The old wooden ones are fine for leaning against while you have your lunch or sheltering behind on a cold, blowy day. But they are not good at sheltering the shore. The main problem with them -apart from their propensity to rot – is that they cannot be made long enough or deep enough to significantly slow down the incoming rush of water. Hence the move towards the new fish-tail variety. A series of these has been built at Clacton, 20 miles to the south of Stoddard's patch. He is now proposing to develop the concept further by building two similar groynes at Cobbolds Point in Felixstowe, using rock and concrete. Despite their size, which might be considered ugly and intrusive, few people dislike them, he says, and the arguments in their favour are compelling. By confronting the sea farther out they do much more to take the steam out of the waves before they reach the shore. And the farther out you go, the more shore you protect by creating two calm areas in the lee of the two wings of the â€Å"tail†. Thus you help to build up a long stretch of sheltered beach. â€Å"Fish-tailed groynes are many times the length of wooden groynes but you only need one about every kilometre rather than one every 20-30 metres,† says Stoddard. â€Å"As well as being more environmentally-friendly because they enable people to walk along the whole beach – something they couldn't do before, at least not without stepping over groynes every few yards. â€Å"They have another advantage over sea walls. If you build them and find they don't work as well as you'd like, you can pick them up and move them. You can't do that with a massive sea wall.† Stoddard sees the introduction of fish-tail groynes as a â€Å"soft-engineering solution† in contrast to the old â€Å"hard† solution of building walls, which is now seen as causing more difficulties than it solves. â€Å"The problem is that whenever you build a hard wall it is almost invariably accompanied by the beach levels falling. The sea is thrown back off the wall and drags the sand and shingle out. Sometimes the wall itself is undermined – you can shore it up but in time the same thing will happen again.† Solid walls are the most concrete (literally) expression of the view that you must at all costs protect the land against the sea. That view is now being challenged. â€Å"You have four options,† says Stoddard. â€Å"Do nothing, hold the line, advance or retreat. Ten years ago the general view was that everything that could be saved should be saved. Now people are far more aware that harsh decisions have to be made.† Such decisions have worrying implications for places like Dunwich. There, to stop the erosion, you would have to start building some form of protective structure along the beach: merely reinforcing the shingle bank is not enough to stop continuing inroads being made into the coast. So why the hesitation over doing something more effective about it? Simply this: the erosion of the cliffs at Dunwich has positive benefits for the beach immediately to the south at Sizewell. Dunwich's loss is thus Sizewell's gain: that is nature's way. It is a conundrum repeated all along the coast. â€Å"If you have got to save the cliffs at Dunwich, you've got to find alternative means of feeding the beach at Sizewell,† says Stoddard. â€Å"In the end, you have to say that there are some places you won't protect – and people have got to come to terms with that.† Such a hard-nosed attitude can stir up fierce emotions, not least because of the way it could affect both the people who live there now and those who would like to join them. Consequently, it has serious implications for local planners. Do you, for example, go on allowing people to build houses near the sea, thus continually extending the number of years that you have to go on protecting that particular bit of coast – probably at someone else's expense? Another issue arousing controversy is the question of compensation for landowners whose land is gobbled up by the sea. At the moment there is no provision for compensation – indeed, it was specifically excluded from the 1949 Coast Protection Act. But as Stoddard says: â€Å"How do you tell a farmer that his 500 acres of productive arable land would be far better as salt marsh? The question of compensation is going to have to be addressed very shortly.† The difficult questions roll in almost as relentlessly as the sea. I pondered them late at night as I walked the beach at Aldeburgh, with the wind strengthening from the north-east and the waves crashing on to the shingle. They were still nagging away later still, as I lay in bed listening to the roar on the shore just below my hotel window. The sound that had been so soothing in the summer sunshine had taken on a darker edge. Suddenly the forces of nature seemed far less benign. Leisurely progress coastal protection has developed piecemeal over the past 150 years, driven not so much by pure science as by the demand to fulfil social expectations. It was essentially that pressure which led to the widespread introduction of sea walls. From the mid-19th century wealthy Victorians sought the development of coastal resorts. To realise their leisurely ambitions, engineers were drafted in to build the walls and the promenades which went with them. Over the years it has become increasingly obvious that such a haphazard approach is unsatisfactory and that activity on one bit of the coast could have damaging effects on another. The need for greater planning and co-ordination, recognised in the 1949 Coast Protection Act, is now universally acknowledged: it will be reflected in the six new shoreline management plans that are being prepared for the whole of the east coast, from the Humber to the Thames. 26.8.95 From Compton's Complete Reference Collection Landforms that result from erosion, or wearing away of the land, make up some of the most scenic coastal areas in the world. Sea cliffs that border many rocky coasts are an example. These cliffs were created when pounding waves weakened the lower portion of the rock to the extent that parts of the cliffs above tumbled into the water, leaving a rock wall with rubble at the bottom. Solid rock shores that lack beaches are easily destroyed by the sea. Beaches consequently protect the shore. Sometimes groins (short piers that extend out into the sea from 30 to 200 meters, depending on the nature of the beach) are constructed to protect the shores from erosion. This has been done along the coasts of the Black Sea. In recent years, some beaches have been artificially restored with sand taken from the sea bottom or from nearby dunes. This has been done on many beaches in the United States and on the island of Norderney in the North Sea.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Evidence for the Safety and Efficacy of Metal

Evidence for the Safety and Efficacy of Metal Introduction The development of joint replacement surgery was a major milestone in orthopedic surgery. Hip replacement is often the only viable solution for patients with advanced joint deterioration. Total hip arthroplasty is usually the last recourse for patients whose condition cannot be resolved clinically.Advertising We will write a custom critical writing sample on Evidence for the Safety and Efficacy of Metal-on-Metal Hip Prosthesis: Sufficient or Insufficient? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Successful hip replacement usually leads to a better quality of life for the patient, due to the elimination of pain, and restoration of mobility. In addition, hip replacement improves the overall functioning of the body. The most common medical condition that can lead to the need for hip replacement is osteoarthritis. Other conditions include inflammatory arthritis, fracture, dysplasia, and malignancy. The use of Metal-on-Metal hip repla cement implants arose from the need to have durable implants. Metals also offered biomedical engineers a wide range of possibilities when designing Metal-on-Metal hip implants. Apart from durability, biomedical engineers could treat metals to make them inert, and to make them withstand corrosion better that most materials. Materials and Design There are two types of Metal-on-Metal hip replacement systems. The first type is the total hip replacement system. Total hip replacement involves the substitution of the hipbone and the hip joint with a metallic system as shown in Figure 1 below. The second type of hip implant is used in cases where the hipbone is not very damaged, by where the hip joint has deteriorated. In this case, a replacement hip joint substitutes the lining of the hip joint in the place of worn out cartilage as shown in Figure 1 below. Four main types of hip replacements are available to patients. The first type is the Metal-on-Plastic implant. Usually, this type of i mplant is made using a polyethylene socket, while the bearing is made from cobalt-chrome alloy. The second type of hip implant is the Metal-on-Metal implant made from cobalt-chromium alloy, titanium alloy, or sometimes stainless steel.Figure 1: Metal-on-Metal Hip Implant SystemsAdvertising Looking for critical writing on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The third type of implant is the Ceramic-on-Ceramic implant. This type of implant has the best durability because of the resistant nature of ceramics. The debris produced as the joint wears is also not toxic to the human body. The fourth type of implant is the Ceramic-on-Polyethylene implant. This type combines the qualities of the two materials to produce a very durable implant. Table 1 below compares devices from different manufacturers Name of Device Manufacturer Market Status Reasons ASR XL Acetabular system DePuy Recalled 2010 High 5-year fa ilure rate of 13% R3 Acetabular system Smith and Nephew Orthopaedics Recalled 2012 Studies showed problems with metal liners in systems Rejuvenate ABG II metal hip stems Stryker Recalled 2012 Multiple failures including dislocation and pain Acetabular Component (Durom Cup) Zimmer Durom Recalled 2008 Voluntary recall by company citing low skill levels among surgeons Table 1: Device Comparison Clinical Safety and Efficacy A team of researchers at the Joint Replacement Institute of the Orthopedic Hospital in Los Angeles conducted a study to investigate the performance of Metal-on-Metal hip replacement implants. The study was titled â€Å"Metal-on-Metal Hybrid Surface Arthroplasty: Two to Six-Year Follow-up Study†. It was published by Amstutz et al. in 2004 in the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. The researchers studied the performance of 400 Metal-on-Metal hip replacements in 355 patients who had undergone arthroplasty after an average of three and a half years. The r eviews were done three months after the arthroplasty, and then annually for a period of three years. The findings from the study were as follows. First, the researchers found that most of the patients were able to resume active lifestyles after the arthroplasty, including participating in sporting activities. The level of activity of each patient dictated the rate of wear of the replacement joints. Out of the 400 hip arthroplasty procedures, twelve (3%) required total replacement after four years due to loosening of the femoral component, or due to neck fractures on the femoral component. The main risk factors associated with the degradation of the femoral component were large femoral heads, female gender, patient height, and small component size in male patients.Advertising We will write a custom critical writing sample on Evidence for the Safety and Efficacy of Metal-on-Metal Hip Prosthesis: Sufficient or Insufficient? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The researchers concluded that in the overall sense, their review of the performance of Metal-on-Metal arthroplasty gave an encouraging picture. Secondly, the researchers concluded that optimal femoral preparation was a key success factor in hybrid Metal-on-Metal arthroplasty. In addition, optimal sizing of the replacement joint was also necessary for successful operation of a replacement hip. The researchers also concluded that replacing a Metal-on-Metal joint by a standard femoral component is easy to carry out. This research project supported the continued use of Metal-on-Metal hybrid joints based on their durability. The researchers failed to take into account the impact of the metallic debris on periprosthetic tissue. This shows that the researchers were biased towards the performance of the Metal-on-Metal hybrid joints at component level. Clarke et al. (2003) conducted research into the toxicological exposure to Chromium and Cobalt in patients who had unde rgone Metal-on-Metal hip arthroplasty. The researchers presented their findings in the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery in an article titled, â€Å"Levels of Metal Ions after Small and Large Diameter Metal-on-Metal Hip Arthroplasty†. The hypothesis of the project was that the production of arthroplasty debris would be less after resurfacing arthroplasty that after total hip arthroplasty. The patients chosen to participate in the research project were those who had undergone arthroplasty at least six months prior to the research. The inclusion criteria included having undergone either total hip arthroplasty or resurfacing arthroplasty. The exclusion criteria include the presence of other metallic prosthesis in the body with the exception of titanium. In addition, the researchers excluded patients with secondary exposure to cobalt or chromium. The researchers compared the levels of chromium and cobalt in two sets of 22 patients who had undergone resurfacing arthroplasty and th ose who has undergone total hip arthroplasty. The first finding was that patients who had undergone resurfacing arthroplasty had medium serum levels of cobalt and chromium of 38 nmol/l and 53 nmol/l.Advertising Looking for critical writing on health medicine? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These levels were much greater than the levels found in those who had undergone total hip arthroplasty, which were 22 nmol/l and 19 nmol/l respectively. This notwithstanding, the researchers noted that these levels were significantly greater than the levels in patients without implants, which is typically 5 nmol/l. The researchers concluded that larger diameter implants result in greater exposure to cobalt and chromium. In addition, they concluded that patients have a higher level of metal ion concentrations after resurfacing arthroplasty compared to total hip arthroplasty. The main criticism about this research project was that it focused too much on the impacts of the metal debris arising from hip arthroplasty. A balanced view of the subject should have included a cost-benefit analysis aimed at finding out whether this condition was better than the prognosis arising from hip problems. This way, it would have been easier to decide whether the risks are worth taking. A study by rese archers in South Korea sought to establish whether metal hypersensitivity had a role in the onset of osteolysis after total hip arthroplasty. Park et al. (2005) conducted their research in the Departments of Orthopedic Surgery, Dermatology, and Pathology in the Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, located at the Samsung Medical Center in Seoul, South Korea. They presented their findings in the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery through an article titled, â€Å"Early Osteolysis Following Second-Generation Metal-on-Metal Hip Replacement†. The researchers wanted to investigate the possible role of metal hypersensitivity in the etiology of osteolysis. Their research was motivated by the increasing use of Metal-on-Metal components for hip arthroplasty as a replacement for metal-on-polyethylene components, especially on second-generation patients. The researchers studied 165 patients (169 hips) who had undergone total hip arthroplasty between 2000 and 2002. The researchers fo llowed the patients for a period of twenty-four months. After this period, the researchers found that nine patients had developed osteolytic lesions. The researchers then conducted skin patch tests for hypersensitivity on the nine patients, and in a control group of nine patients who did not have the lesions. The researchers also conducted further tests on two hips during replacement surgery. These tests included microbiological cultures, histopathologic examinations, and immunohistochemical analysis on the two hips. The results obtained by the researchers showed that the patients who had developed osteolytic lesions had a higher hypersensitivity reaction to cobalt compared to their cohort. The two hips that underwent further tests showed no signs of metallic staining. There was however a high concentration of lymphocytes in the periprosthetic region. The researchers failed to find a way of telling apart natural sensitivity to Cobalt from acquired hypersentivity. This leaves the res earch findings open to interpretation because there is no proof adduced to the heightened levels of cobalt in the bodies of patients. In the same way, the researchers failed to find out whether Metal-on-Metal prosthesis has anything to do with osteolysis. This reduces the overall efficacy of the report. A research project conducted in the Departments of Orthopedics and Pathology, at the Klinikum der Universitt Gà ¶ttingen in Gà ¶ttingen, Germany sought to find out whether there is evidence to support the presence of an immunological reaction in patients who undergo a successive arthroplasty using Metal-on-Metal implants. The findings of the research project by Willart et al. (2005) were presented in the article titled â€Å"Metal-on-Metal Bearings and Hypersensitivity in Patients with Artificial Hip Joints†. The initial observation by the researchers that triggered the research process was that the some patients experienced a recurrence of preoperative symptoms after underg oing a second-generation total hip arthroplasty. Ideally, the surgery should have alleviated the entire range of symptoms related to aging prosthesis. In this regard, the researchers developed the project to find out why there was little or no change in patients who underwent arthroplasty involving second-generation Metal-on-Metal prosthesis. The researchers collected clinical data and examined periprosthetic tissue from nineteen patients who underwent arthroplasty in participating clinics. The sample was chosen on a consecutive basis as an application of random sampling. Out of the nineteen patients, fourteen patients received alumina-ceramic or metal-on-polyethylene implant. Five patients received second-generation Metal-on-Metal total joint replacement. The researchers used immunihistochemical methods to test the periprosthetic samples. They also used histological methods to test the samples. The main findings that the researchers reported were that the patients who underwent Met al-on-Metal total hip replacement had a recurrence of the preoperative symptoms characterized by an immunological reaction. The evidence adduced to support an immunological reaction was the presence of T and B lymphocyte cells in the periprosthetic region. In addition, immunohistochemical tests showed that the immunological reactions were ongoing as at the time of the test. This project made very important findings in regards to the impact of metallic debris arising from Metal-on-Metal prosthesis. The researchers did not provide a conclusive proposal on how to deal with the issues. This leaves the readers with task of deciding what to do about the prosthesis. Good research reports need to take into account the likely range of actions. Fisher et al. (2004) conducted a simulated experiment on the performance of surface engineered prosthesis to find out whether it is possible to reduce the rate to wear on metal-to-metal prosthesis. The researchers used a simulator to mimic the operatin g conditions of a Metal-on-Metal prosthesis. Lower rates of wear and tear associated with Metal-on-Metal prosthesis compared to other types of implants inspired the researchers. Metal-on-Metal prostheses have much lower wear rates compared to polyethylene prostheses. However, the researchers were aware that the levels of toxicity of the residue associated with Metal-on-Metal prostheses were higher that the levels associated with residue from other materials. Therefore, they identified the need for Metal-on-Metal prostheses with lower wear rates to eliminate or reduce the toxicity associated with metallic residue. The stated goals of the project were to investigate the wear, wear debris, and ion release of fully coated surface engineered Metal-on-Metal bearings for hip prostheses. The researchers used the Leeds Mark II physiological hip joint simulator operating at 1 Hz to conduct the wear experiments. This enabled them to collect the debris from the exercise. The test units were fiv e types of surface engineered prosthesis. The researchers also subjected conventional Metal-on-Metal prostheses to the simulator tests to develop a comparison. They found that the surface engineered bearings had a wear rate that was at least 18 times lower than traditional prosthesis after one million cycles and 36 times lower after five million cycles. The differences were calculated by measuring the debris levels and ion concentration in the lubricants. The debris levels and ion concentration in the lubricants were much lower when the experiments were done using surface engineered prostheses. The experiment by Fisher shows that it is possible to reduce the wear rate of metallic prostheses. Theoretically, this should reduce the problems associated with high serum concentration of metallic ions in patients with Metal-on-Metal prosthesis. However, the researchers failed to find out whether better surface engineering can reduce the problems associated with immunological responses espe cially in periprosthetic tissue. Conclusion This review shows that in the period prior to 2005, there was increasing concern regarding the use of Metal-on-Metal implants because of the immunological reactions caused by hypersensitivity to high ion concentration. In addition, the long-term impact of high ion concentration is unknown. Surface engineering can help resolve these fears. Reference List Amstutz, HC, Beaule, PE, Dorey, FJ, LeDuff, MJ, Campbell, PA Gruen, TA 2004, Metal-on-Metal Hybrid Surface Arthroplasty: Two to Six-Year Follow-up Study, The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, vol 86, no. 1, pp. 28-39. Bohle, P Quinlan, M 2000, Managing Occupational Health and Safety: A Multidisciplinary Approach, Macmillan Educational AU, South Yarra. Clarke, MT, Lee, PT, Arora, A Villar, RN 2003, Levels of Metal Ions after Small- and Large Diameter Metal-on-Metal Hip Arthroplasty, The Journal of Joint and Bone Surgery, vol 85, no. 6, pp. 913-917. FDA 2013, Medical Devices: Metal-on-Met al Hip Implants. Web. Fisher, J, Hu, XQ, Stewart, TD, Williams, S, Tipper, JL, Ingham, E, Stone, MH, Davies, C, Hatto, P, Bolton, J, Riley, M, Hardaker, C, Issac, G Berry, G 2004, Wear of Surface Engineered Metal-on-Metal Hip Prostheses, Journal of Material Science: Materials in Medicine, vol 15, no. 1, pp. 225-235. Park, Y-S, Moon, Y-W, Lim, S-J, Yang, J-M, Ahn, G Choi, Y-L 2005, Early Osteolysis Following Second-Generation Metal-on-Metal Hip Replacement, Journal of Joint and Bone Surgery, vol 87, no. 7, pp. 1515-1521. Singh, JA 2011, Epidemiology of Knee and Hip Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review, Open Orthopaedics Journal, vol 5, no. 1, pp. 80-85. Willart, H-G, Buchhorn, GH, Fayyazi, A, Flury, R, Windler, M, Koster, G Lohmann, CH 2005, Metal-on-Metal Bearings and Hypersensitivity in Patients with Artificial Hip Joints, Journal of Joint and Hip Surgery, vol 87, no. 1, pp. 28-36.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Overcoming in Their Eyes Were Watching God Essays

Overcoming in Their Eyes Were Watching God Essays Overcoming in Their Eyes Were Watching God Essay Overcoming in Their Eyes Were Watching God Essay Essay Topic: Their Eyes Were Watching God â€Å"Their Eyes Were Watching God† follows the story of Janie Crawford as she follows her dream of finding true love. The story starts off when Janie returns to her home in Eatonville, Florida. As soon as she is spotted she is the talk of all the gossip in town. Her friend Phoebe, who she has not seen for a while runs to meet her and tells Janie that everyone is talking about how she left looking very nice and rich and comes back dressed in dirty overalls. Everyone in town speculates that the guy she left with, Teacake, has used her for her money and has left her. Janie decides Phoebe to tell her the story of the past twenty years of her life. Janie’s story starts off when she was a little girl living with her grandmother, Nanny. She lives with Nanny because Janies mother left the house after she was raped by a white man. One day Nanny catches Janie getting a kissed from a neighboring teenager and Nanny feels that Janie has grown to be a woman. Nanny knows she is very old and will probably die soon and doesnt want Janie to need anything or to struggle after her death. Nanny decided to arrange a marriage between Janie and a rich white man Logan Killicks and Janie quickly is disgusted by the idea. Nevertheless, Janie accepts for the sake of her grandmothers happiness and believes that overtime, she will fall in love with Killicks. Janie wants a marriage where she truly loves her husband, and her husband makes her feel loved, cares about her opinions, and is treated as an equal but she doesnt find this in the marriage with Killicks. One day when Logan is away, Janie meets Joe Starks, a well dressed man with big dreams. Soon Joe starts filling young Janie’s mind with high hopes and big dreams and Janie decides to run away with him. Joe and Janie move to Eatonville, Florida where there is hardly anything and Joe builds a town from the ground up. He is then pronounced mayor and is very demanding towards others. He becomes very posses

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Top 5 Lucrative Tech Careers You Should Consider

Top 5 Lucrative Tech Careers You Should Consider don’t let the prospect of tedious, isolated computer work dissuade you from exploring careers in it- there are more engaging and compelling options to consider! take a look at this list from aftercollege’s joy miller.   big data scientistas the name implies, this is the big-picture approach to data analysis- you’d be responsible for developing programs and systems to house and investigate data. your ingenuity and creativity will help you identify trends and insightful conclusions, solve problems, and propose areas for growth or company innovation.these positions can pay as much as $188,000 annually, so it’s worth the time and labor-intensive demands of the gig.  computer forensic investigatormake the most of your interest in law enforcement and pursue a bachelor’s degree in computer forensics, information security, or cyber security- you can even get a certification from a computer examiner board. with it, you can help law enforcement and invest igative agencies solve crimes and testify at trial. average salaries can run to $91k.  geospatial analysteven bigger than big data is an analyst that works with global geography and modern technology. where are people living and working and moving, what models can help us predict or analyze their behavior, and what technological resources can help accommodate and address their needs?certifications in geospatial intelligence analytics, cartography, or related fields can help you earn as much as $74k.  software engineerif your degree is in software engineering, computer science, or a related field, chances are you already know about the countless opportunities available to people who can design games, create apps, and write code. whether you find an in-office gig or stay flexible as a freelancing contractor, you could potentially stand to earn as much as $93k.  it consultantthe classic it gig involves finding a company where you’d like to work- based on their products, th eir mission statement, or even just the team you’d get to work with, from a start-up to a massive corporation- and getting your foot in the door. whether you take the late shift or the daily grind, you may earn as much as $94k.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Culture Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Culture - Essay Example iscuss whether or not there are ‘good’ stereotypes and discuss the pros and cons of the stereotype in the hope of understanding and logically assessing the veracity of this stereotype. The stereotype: homeless people are lazy drunks, have been used to describe and portray the picture of homelessness in America. The source of this stereotype has not exactly been pinpointed, however, the fact that homeless drunks make up about 30 to 40% of the total homeless population may be blamed for this stereotype (Jones, â€Å"News†). The fact that these homeless drunks are often the ones who gain the most attention from society because of their occasionally disorderly behavior may be one of the factors which contribute to the development of this stereotype. Many studies and statistics however were able to disprove this stereotype. In a paper by Jones (â€Å"News†) she disputes the claim that 90% of homeless people are drug or alcohol abusers. She firmly disputes these claims by citing accurate sources of statistics on the homeless people. She cites the US Interagency Council on Homelessness, the National Coalition for the Homeless and the Los Angeles Services Au thority as accurate sources for statistics on the homeless people (Jones â€Å"News†). Based on her review of statistics from these agencies, about 25 to 39% of the homeless population is composed of children. She then poses the question, on whether or not it is really true that these children can be drunks. On a more accurate note, Jones (â€Å"News†) notes that most of the addiction and alcohol abuse was seen after these people became homeless, not after. She also point out that substance abuse statistics from a Los Angeles survey reveal that 42% of the homeless were drug or alcohol users. Clearly, these figures are still well below the 90% rate that previous reports claim. She also points out that the more likely split in the statistics surrounding the homeless people is at 33%. This represents 33%

Friday, October 18, 2019

The UK Hotel Industry Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 5000 words

The UK Hotel Industry - Essay Example In spite of such diversity, a large proportion of work in the manufacturing industries to relates services. (Hoque 1999b). While human resources management as a concept attracted a lot of attention as a â€Å"more effective and productive approach to managing organizations key assets, its people†, there have been differences of opinion as to whether it is industrial relations management-personnel management (IR & PR) freshly packaged or a totally different discipline â€Å"aimed at integrating the management of people into overall business strategy and organizational goals† (Poole, 1990; Salamon, 1987; Storey, 1995b cited in Mc Gunnigle 2000). Three models of HRM have been suggested: normative" (prescriptive of an ideal approach); "descriptive" (identifying developments and practice in the field); and "conceptual" (a model for classification). (Storey 1992 cited in Mc Gunnigle 2000). In the normative model, HRM has a â€Å"team development† orientation, a â€Å" significant role for line managers† and seeks to develop an â€Å"organizational culture†. The conceptual model differs widely from IR-PR with as many as 27 differences listed. All researchers, however, agree that employee commitment is not only the dominant aspect of HRM but that it is the main differentiator between HRM and IR-PR. (Storey 1992 and Guest 1995 cited in Mc Gunnigle 2000).   The objective of human resource management is fostering employee commitment to enhancing employee performance. The rationale behind this premise is that employee commitment makes them more satisfied, productive, adaptable, willing to accept organizational goals and values and not mind to ‘stretch’ to meet these goals. ‘Stretch’, in this context refers to additional productivity, effective contributions and taking part in continuous improvement processes.

Comp. Exam Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 5000 words

Comp. Exam - Assignment Example This essay examines the evolving role of community college in the American higher education system. The two-year community college idea originated in the US and can be traced back to the latter part of the 19th century and the early part of the 20th century. Since its beginning, the community college program has been regarded as a significant part of the higher education system in the U.S. A formal definition of community colleges is expressed as follows: The term community college has also been used interchangeably with terms such as â€Å"junior college†, technical colleges and alternative colleges (Santos & Santos, 2006, p. 38). All indications are that community colleges are perceived as separate, but yet connected to the conventional four-year college system. As Santos and Santos (2006) explain, community colleges make provision for â€Å"comprehensive curricular offerings† inclusive of â€Å"academic transfer preparation, vocational-technical education, continuing education, developmental education and community services† (pp. 38-39). By the 1990s, community colleges became increasingly linked to vocational and workforce training and development (Santos & Santos, 2006). According to Baum, Little and Payea (2011), community colleges are perceived as â€Å"the access point to higher education for many students† (p. 1). In particular, access to higher education in the U.S. continues to be a problem as the socio-economically disadvantaged can rarely afford the high cost of tuition at accredited four-year colleges. Lower tuition and lower admission requirements have always made community colleges an alternative to this underserved population of Americans aspiring to achieve a post-secondary education. For the most part, students entering community colleges do so with a view to transferring over to a four-year college eventually (Beach, 2010). Conventional wisdom dictates, that once a student completes a two-year college degree and can

England culture Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

England culture - Assignment Example The purpose of the paper is to evaluate the culture of England in terms of living condition that includes leisure activities such as recreation and sports activities among others. In addition, it deals with the types and the demand of the leisure activities along with the percentage of income that is spent by the people of England on those activities in order to attain higher level of customer satisfaction. Furthermore, the paper will also focus on the social security as well as healthcare facilities of the country that in turn provide a healthy and safe environment for its citizens. In England, the weekends are a time mainly for the families. In these days, parents do not generally prefer to work and enjoy the leisure activities with their families. Similarly, Sunday is a very crucial day of the week in England and a popular leisure activity on this day is to visit a church. A few of the people prefer to do their odd jobs at home such as gardening, cleaning and repairing among others. People often enjoy a variety of indoor and outdoor leisure activities in England. According to a recent survey, English people spend 45% of their spare time in watching television, 24% on socializing, near about 23% on sports and hobbies and 10% on other leisure activities. http://www.slideshare.net/cccnproductions/what-do-british-people-like-doing-at-the-weekends It can include listening to music, eating out, reading and going for a movie. In addition, people prefer socializing by attending pubs and night clubs in their weekends. Furthermore, people enjoy their leisure time with cycling, riding and fishing that provide a feeling of relaxation (Mandy Barrow, 2012). In the similar context, people of England believe that sport is one of the important parts in their life along with popular leisure activities throughout the community. Most of the world’s famous sports have begun here or are very much popular in the nation among the mass that include

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Answer the Q Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Answer the Q - Essay Example However, there is a requirement of developing an environment facilitating communication before problem arises since different cultures have varying degrees of social acceptance in contradicting opinions from their employers. Nonetheless, employees can have a feeling of not contradicting opinions from their management, or the management be involved actively in the process of making opinions being heard, thus establishing difficulty of eliciting reduced performance of the employees. Therefore, this essay focuses on discussing the significance of communication in the workplace to an organization. There is need for a clear communication in writing or verbally, between the employees and employers in order to eradicate challenges created by cultural barriers (Olynk and Widmar, 2). Communication in the work place has a significant contribution towards the business since it facilities functions such as negotiations involved in getting into business deals. On the other hand, effective communication in the workplace enables increasing effectiveness in communicating with manager and stakeholders, employees and customers. Solving a problem related to a long-term shortage of clear communication is creation of awareness that is preceded by active steps aimed at improving communication that initiated for benefits of employees and operations in the organization. Thus, an effective communication process manages both uncertainty and anxiety amongst strangers resulting from lack of understanding of each cultural expectation at play. Therefore, lack an effective process of communication lead s employees’ isolation: especially strangers from different ethnic groups. Based on what elements people employ, they go on to develop various methods of communication. Some of them develop verbal means; while others develop non-verbal means. Non-verbal language that involve ways a person, stands or carries themselves, holding of their

Structured essay 2500 words, a critical analysis of the portrayal of

Structured 2500 words, a critical analysis of the portrayal of socio-cultural issues and physical education in the media - Essay Example A number of factors that help shape and determine these socio-cultural issues are the expectations of the community, laws, rules, and policies, economic as well as physical resources, ethical and technological factors. The media could as well be categorized under the technological factors. These factors will in the long run affect the attitudes, behaviors, and expectations that these people have over the relationships (Smith & O’Day, 1990). The media together with what could be described as popular culture often does portray unrealistic scenarios or images about these relationships and often does play a very crucial role in the persuasion process of the people within communities to try and conform to the social norms. The media could still be used as a destructive tool that hinders the achievement of these socio-cultural needs and that is why its portrayal of them is very vital thing to consider (Oleribe, 2005). In the movie Take the Lead, there are socio-culture issues that arise from the events in the movie and from individuals’ behaviors. These socio-culture issues include disadvantaged education and family. On the part of disadvantaged education, this can be well pointed out in the movie where the students in the detention like Rock, LaRhette and the others are seen as not performing well in terms of class education. Although they are not good in class performance, they are seen as having other talents that they can perform better. In this case their dancing skills are good and through practice, acceptance and determination, they dance through a highly competitive dancing competition where their performance is quite appreciated even by the school Principle James who makes the program permanent within the school and expands it to other schools. Family as a socio-cultural issue on the other hand is portrayed in this movie by how different individual characters have been brought up or are relating to their family members or the general

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Answer the Q Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Answer the Q - Essay Example However, there is a requirement of developing an environment facilitating communication before problem arises since different cultures have varying degrees of social acceptance in contradicting opinions from their employers. Nonetheless, employees can have a feeling of not contradicting opinions from their management, or the management be involved actively in the process of making opinions being heard, thus establishing difficulty of eliciting reduced performance of the employees. Therefore, this essay focuses on discussing the significance of communication in the workplace to an organization. There is need for a clear communication in writing or verbally, between the employees and employers in order to eradicate challenges created by cultural barriers (Olynk and Widmar, 2). Communication in the work place has a significant contribution towards the business since it facilities functions such as negotiations involved in getting into business deals. On the other hand, effective communication in the workplace enables increasing effectiveness in communicating with manager and stakeholders, employees and customers. Solving a problem related to a long-term shortage of clear communication is creation of awareness that is preceded by active steps aimed at improving communication that initiated for benefits of employees and operations in the organization. Thus, an effective communication process manages both uncertainty and anxiety amongst strangers resulting from lack of understanding of each cultural expectation at play. Therefore, lack an effective process of communication lead s employees’ isolation: especially strangers from different ethnic groups. Based on what elements people employ, they go on to develop various methods of communication. Some of them develop verbal means; while others develop non-verbal means. Non-verbal language that involve ways a person, stands or carries themselves, holding of their

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

The Historical Context of International Communication Essay

The Historical Context of International Communication - Essay Example The developments in film, advertisement and radio ushered a new era in communication and mass culture. Radio as a propaganda tool was first utilized by former USSR and then all the nations of the world followed the suit. Communist and capitalist propaganda used radio all over the world to promote their point of views. Third world countries used communication tools for promoting health care, education and culture. Third World countries genuinely felt the disparity in communication technologies between developed and developing countries and demanded for more just treatment. The MacBride Commission is the result of such efforts by Third World. The commission called for impartial, balanced and responsible reporting. USA opposed the commission as it deemed it more pro Soviet Union. The opponents called the proposals as instrument against freedom of press and information. This opposition came to an end with Soviet disintegration. Opinion The chapter is a detailed look at the role of differ ent communication devices through out history and world. The writer presents different facts and figures from ancient time to colonial era in order to press the point that communication is vital aspect of any empire. The writer then discusses in detail the impact and role of telegraph from 19th Century onwards on different social and political aspects of the world. The writer then relates the development of journalism and radio with telegraph in 20th Century. At the end the writer gives a detailed look at the impact of radio during the Cold War. The chapter is according to the title and it gives a very detailed look at the historical development of international communication. The data regarding length of cables of telegraph and the spread in different areas of the world may confuse the reader but the information is very helpful in understanding the development. The writer has used simple language and starts from ancient time in order to present the main argument. The writer is able to give a cursory look at the ancient history and then focuses on colonial era in order to make argument clear. Overall the reader may find the data presented in the chapter a bit taxing but for scholarly purpose the chapter is very well documented. The logical sequence and development enable the involvement of the reader. The writer overlooks television and internet but still the effort is very good. Summary : The Technology and Society Science has brought many changes in the society. In order to investigate the issue of social changes and scientific discoveries there are two schools of thought. One group attributes all the changes in the society to the scientific inventions. For them scientific discoveries produce change in the society. The other group takes a less radical view by stating that changes in the society are going on the new scientific inventions just contribute in these changes. Both of these views take technology and society in isolation. Military and commercial nee ds forced improvement in communication. These social factors were to great extent satisfied by the development in the field of telegraphy, telephony and early stages of radio. The need of addressing masses in new political world gave power to press but this political urge was satisfied by television. This complex situation set the stage for broadcasting. The use of different broadcasting tools for social communication and political manipulation greatly influenced the rapid technological advancement in the field of communication. Political stimulus and economic benefits made television a popular medium for bringing change.